You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:35:54 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:47 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4370
Common NameL-Valine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionValine (abbreviated as Val or V) is an -amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2. It is named after the plant valerian. L-Valine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Its codons are GUU, GUC, GUA, and GUG. This essential amino acid is classified as nonpolar. Along with leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid. Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point. These three amino acids are critical to human life and are particularly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism. BCAA supplementation as therapy, both oral and intravenous, in human health and disease holds great promise. BCAA denotes valine, isoleucine and leucine which are branched chain essential amino acids. Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine and isoleucine respectively. Furthermore, these amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors. Many types of inborn errors of BCAA metabolism exist, and are marked by various abnormalities. The most common form is the maple syrup urine disease, marked by a characteristic urinary odor. Other abnormalities are associated with a wide range of symptoms, such as mental retardation, ataxia, hypoglycemia, spinal muscle atrophy, rash, vomiting and excessive muscle movement. Most forms of BCAA metabolism errors are corrected by dietary restriction of BCAA and at least one form is correctable by supplementation with 10 mg of biotin daily. BCAA are decreased in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, hepatic coma, cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia or portacaval shunt; aromatic amino acids (AAA) tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, as well as methionine are increased in these conditions. Valine in particular, has been established as a useful supplemental therapy to the ailing liver. All the BCAA probably compete with AAA for absorption into the brain. Supplemental BCAA with vitamin B6 and zinc help normalize the BCAA:AAA ratio. In sickle-cell disease, valine substitutes for the hydrophilic amino acid glutamic acid in hemoglobin. Because valine is hydrophobic, the hemoglobin does not fold correctly. Valine is an essential amino acid, hence it must be ingested, usually as a component of proteins.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Amino Acid, Essential
  • Animal Toxin
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Micronutrient
  • Natural Compound
  • Nutraceutical
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
(2S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
(S)-2-amino-3-methyl-Butanoic acid
(S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
(S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutyric acid
(S)-a-Amino-b-methylbutyric acid
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-methylbutyric acid
2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
2-Amino-3-methylbutyric acid
L-(+)-a-Aminoisovaleric acid
L-(+)-alpha-Aminoisovaleric acid
L-a-Amino-b-methylbutyric acid
L-alpha-Amino-beta-methylbutyric acid
Chemical FormulaC5H11NO2
Average Molecular Mass117.146 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass117.079 g/mol
CAS Registry Number72-18-4
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
Traditional NameL-valine
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H11NO2/c1-3(2)4(6)5(7)8/h3-4H,6H2,1-2H3,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as valine and derivatives. Valine and derivatives are compounds containing valine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of valine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentValine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Valine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
Propanoate MetabolismSMP00016 map00640
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019 Not Available
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032 map00280
Hartnup DisorderSMP00189 Not Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point315°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility5.85E+004 mg/L (at 25°C)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility214 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.72ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity29.49 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0006-0910000000-23bfcf2795f71f458bdaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0006-0920000000-7892bb9d4d9afcc23410JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0006-0910000000-f2491152816b9c5dc7edJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-0znj-1900000000-7c976d7c11a402db399fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00dl-8910000000-78e8ee971ad7298c23cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00di-9200000000-805e6724e5181af78c81JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0006-0910000000-a212771a5ea868139d5aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-059t-0900000000-7b8e4e98ac9158bf26d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0910000000-9079324093be9a14d47aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0910000000-23bfcf2795f71f458bdaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0920000000-7892bb9d4d9afcc23410JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0910000000-f2491152816b9c5dc7edJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0znj-1900000000-7c976d7c11a402db399fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-2920000000-1628d46d5520c5f20de8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dl-8910000000-78e8ee971ad7298c23cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9200000000-805e6724e5181af78c81JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0910000000-a212771a5ea868139d5aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-602d1e01bc7567493e4cJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9500000000-a758682a7aafbd0d553eJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-67498a3295a1fe788c4bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-fb359f44fcf1b83ee14dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-8e5f620c04615765a062JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014r-0900000000-619d80cc41221405e0bdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-17ab53cec2e6b727c3e9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-0dfbcc85d6423af91edaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014l-4900000000-c50d79ba3a5013bcf29fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uxr-0900000000-67a7784963ec75cecaa0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-4569516f23d8a712b434JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d928cac1226f19b8edc3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-34059351f2cbd94a8accJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-a36d8d68a6705027415fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-1a5d8f4c1b293de18fedJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-b410df2c18dfc8ab7165JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0gi0-6900000000-c87ff036e3a5d15b7670JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-561b3b28fa82e0b10658JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-05fr-9000000000-11e7c0a3d5cf8e4dedfeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6a6f8cd9629b0f09469cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4518f691bbda5739c0f1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-a931cfc8207edac33775JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-430332b13b8c6368136bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-ffb286a8ae38a0a3e6d2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00xr-9500000000-bb54662a5fd1dd142d90JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-1f7d9c10db4226a383c1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05fu-9000000000-f6d7e45bb3f3436e5eb7JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05fr-9000000000-5d10fb7acd70b2f43368JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureAbsorbed from the small intestine by a sodium-dependent active-transport process.
Mechanism of Toxicity(Applies to Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine)
This group of essential amino acids are identified as the branched-chain amino acids, BCAAs. Because this arrangement of carbon atoms cannot be made by humans, these amino acids are an essential element in the diet. The catabolism of all three compounds initiates in muscle and yields NADH and FADH2 which can be utilized for ATP generation. The catabolism of all three of these amino acids uses the same enzymes in the first two steps. The first step in each case is a transamination using a single BCAA aminotransferase, with a-ketoglutarate as amine acceptor. As a result, three different a-keto acids are produced and are oxidized using a common branched-chain a-keto acid dehydrogenase, yielding the three different CoA derivatives. Subsequently the metabolic pathways diverge, producing many intermediates.
The principal product from valine is propionylCoA, the glucogenic precursor of succinyl-CoA. Isoleucine catabolism terminates with production of acetylCoA and propionylCoA; thus isoleucine is both glucogenic and ketogenic. Leucine gives rise to acetylCoA and acetoacetylCoA, and is thus classified as strictly ketogenic.
There are a number of genetic diseases associated with faulty catabolism of the BCAAs. The most common defect is in the branched-chain a-keto acid dehydrogenase. Since there is only one dehydrogenase enzyme for all three amino acids, all three a-keto acids accumulate and are excreted in the urine. The disease is known as Maple syrup urine disease because of the characteristic odor of the urine in afflicted individuals. Mental retardation in these cases is extensive. Unfortunately, since these are essential amino acids, they cannot be heavily restricted in the diet; ultimately, the life of afflicted individuals is short and development is abnormal The main neurological problems are due to poor formation of myelin in the CNS.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesPromotes mental vigor, muscle coordination, and calm emotions. May also be of use in a minority of patients with hepatic encephalopathy and in some with phenylketonuria.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsSymptoms of hypoglycemia.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00161
PubChem Compound ID6287
ChemSpider ID6050
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16414
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia Linkvaline
Synthesis Reference

Hiroshi Matsui, Takayasu Tsuchida, Shigeru Nakamori, “Method for producing L-valine by fermentation.” U.S. Patent US4391907, issued July, 1981.

General References
  1. Deng C, Shang C, Hu Y, Zhang X: Rapid diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other aminoacidemias by quantitative analysis of amino acids in neonatal blood spots by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Jul 25;775(1):115-20. [12101068 ]
  2. Stickel F, Osterreicher CH, Datz C, Ferenci P, Wolfel M, Norgauer W, Kraus MR, Wrba F, Hellerbrand C, Schuppan D: Prediction of progression to cirrhosis by a glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism in subjects with hereditary hemochromatosis. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Sep 12;165(16):1835-40. [16157826 ]
  3. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
  4. Wudy SA, Hartmann M, Solleder C, Homoki J: Determination of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in human plasma by routine isotope dilution mass spectrometry using benchtop gas chromatography-mass selective detection. Steroids. 2001 Oct;66(10):759-62. [11522338 ]
  5. Szpetnar M, Pasternak K, Boguszewska A: Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in heart diseases (ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction). Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 2004;59(2):91-5. [16146056 ]
  6. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
  7. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
  8. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [9625050 ]
  9. Hongpaisan J: Inhibition of proliferation of contaminating fibroblasts by D-valine in cultures of smooth muscle cells from human myometrium. Cell Biol Int. 2000;24(1):1-7. [10826768 ]
  10. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [7729054 ]
  11. Deligezer U, Akisik EE, Dalay N: Homozygosity at the C677T of the MTHFR gene is associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Turkish population. In Vivo. 2005 Sep-Oct;19(5):889-93. [16097444 ]
  12. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  13. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [2026685 ]
  14. McInturff JE, Wang SJ, Machleidt T, Lin TR, Oren A, Hertz CJ, Krutzik SR, Hart S, Zeh K, Anderson DH, Gallo RL, Modlin RL, Kim J: Granulysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects against Propionibacterium acnes. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Aug;125(2):256-63. [16098035 ]
  15. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
  16. Jensen PK, Jacobsen NO: Studies of D-amino acid oxidase activity in human epidermis and cultured human epidermal cells. Arch Dermatol Res. 1984;276(1):57-64. [6142701 ]
  17. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [6198473 ]
  18. Kurpad AV, Regan MM, Raj TD, Gnanou JV, Rao VN, Young VR: The daily valine requirement of healthy adult Indians determined by the 24-h indicator amino acid balance approach. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;82(2):373-9. [16087981 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
L-valine transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
42965.815 Da
  1. Chen CD, Huang TF, Lin CH, Guan HH, Hsieh YC, Lin YH, Huang YC, Liu MY, Chang WC, Chen CJ: Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of branched-chain aminotransferase from Deinococcus radiodurans. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Jun 1;63(Pt 6):492-4. Epub 2007 May 5. [17554170 ]
  2. Beck HC: Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005 Feb 1;243(1):37-44. [15667998 ]
  3. Saito M, Nishimura K, Wakabayashi S, Kurihara T, Nagata Y: Purification of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637. Amino Acids. 2007 Sep;33(3):445-9. Epub 2006 Nov 2. [17077963 ]
General Function:
Propionyl-coa carboxylase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
58215.13 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Kim SN, Ryu KH, Lee EH, Kim JS, Hahn SH: Molecular analysis of PCCB gene in Korean patients with propionic acidemia. Mol Genet Metab. 2002 Nov;77(3):209-16. [12409268 ]
General Function:
Valine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
140474.755 Da
  1. Zhu B, Zhao MW, Eriani G, Wang ED: A present-day aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with ancestral editing properties. RNA. 2007 Jan;13(1):15-21. Epub 2006 Nov 9. [17095543 ]
  2. Laforest MJ, Delage L, Marechal-Drouard L: The T-domain of cytosolic tRNAVal, an essential determinant for mitochondrial import. FEBS Lett. 2005 Feb 14;579(5):1072-8. [15710393 ]