Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:35:59 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:47 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4371
Identification
Common NameL-Tyrosine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionTyrosine is an essential amino acid that readily passes the blood-brain barrier. Once in the brain, it is a precursor for the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, better known as adrenalin. These neurotransmitters are an important part of the body's sympathetic nervous system, and their concentrations in the body and brain are directly dependent upon dietary tyrosine. Tyrosine is not found in large concentrations throughout the body, probably because it is rapidly metabolized. Folic acid, copper and vitamin C are cofactor nutrients of these reactions. Tyrosine is also the precursor for hormones, thyroid, catecholestrogens and the major human pigment, melanin. Tyrosine is an important amino acid in many proteins, peptides and even enkephalins, the body's natural pain reliever. Valine and other branched amino acids, and possibly tryptophan and phenylalanine may reduce tyrosine absorption. A number of genetic errors of tyrosine metabolism occur. Most common is the increased amount of tyrosine in the blood of premature infants, which is marked by decreased motor activity, lethargy and poor feeding. Infection and intellectual deficits may occur. Vitamin C supplements reverse the disease. Some adults also develop elevated tyrosine in their blood. This indicates a need for more vitamin C. More tyrosine is needed under stress, and tyrosine supplements prevent the stress-induced depletion of norepinephrine and can cure biochemical depression. However, tyrosine may not be good for psychosis. Many antipsychotic medications apparently function by inhibiting tyrosine metabolism. L-dopa, which is directly used in Parkinson's, is made from tyrosine. Tyrosine, the nutrient, can be used as an adjunct in the treatment of Parkinson's. Peripheral metabolism of tyrosine necessitates large doses of tyrosine, however, compared to L-dopa.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Micronutrient
  • Natural Compound
  • Non-Essential Amino Acid
  • Nutraceutical
  • Organic Compound
  • Supplement
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(-)-a-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamate
(-)-a-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
(-)-alpha-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamate
(-)-alpha-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
(S)-(-)-Tyrosine
(S)-2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionate
(S)-2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid
(S)-3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)alanine
(S)-a-amino-4-hydroxy-Benzenepropanoate
(S)-a-amino-4-hydroxy-Benzenepropanoic acid
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoate
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid
(S)-alpha-amino-4-hydroxy-Benzenepropanoate
(S)-alpha-amino-4-hydroxy-Benzenepropanoic acid
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoate
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid
(S)-Tyrosine
(S)-α-amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid
(−)-α-amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphen yl)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-Propanoate
2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphen yl)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-Propanoic acid
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
4-Hydroxy-L-Phenylalanine
Benzenepropanoate
Benzenepropanoic acid
L-p-Tyrosine
L-Tyrosin
p-Tyrosine
Rxosine
Tyr
Tyrosine
Y
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO3
Average Molecular Mass181.189 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass181.074 g/mol
CAS Registry Number60-18-4
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
Traditional NameL-tyrosine
SMILES[H][C@](N)(CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H11NO3/c10-8(9(12)13)5-6-1-3-7(11)4-2-6/h1-4,8,11H,5,10H2,(H,12,13)/t8-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=OUYCCCASQSFEME-QMMMGPOBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. Tyrosine and derivatives are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentTyrosine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tyrosine or derivatives
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012 map00350
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00008 map00360
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019 Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006 map00350
Hartnup DisorderSMP00189 Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190 Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494 Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)SMP00369 Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)SMP00370 Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218 Not Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point343 dec°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility479 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP-2.26
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.67 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.4ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.19ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.55 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity47.1 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.01 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-014i-0690000000-cbbf40bb26fc84f2aeadView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-014i-0890000000-ca45f993f95c8b0cee44View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-014i-0890000000-5749069211ba15d713efView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00xr-9240000000-2c87373c0d964e0edef5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0890000000-848b2a4f247a0b3f14e8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00xr-9450000000-6d4550940f4dde6f18ffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-004i-1910000000-5cc19cad5dc24b3b9b11View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-014i-1790000000-de22041357aadf60a06bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0690000000-cbbf40bb26fc84f2aeadView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0890000000-ca45f993f95c8b0cee44View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0890000000-5749069211ba15d713efView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xr-9240000000-2c87373c0d964e0edef5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0890000000-848b2a4f247a0b3f14e8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-3319000000-1d3d28a67f82366fff22View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xr-9450000000-6d4550940f4dde6f18ffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-1910000000-5cc19cad5dc24b3b9b11View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1790000000-de22041357aadf60a06bView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-052r-4900000000-9be1412408207db5df4eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05fr-9750000000-937b6ee7a745865ee7eeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01p9-0900000000-580de2c16cd24559cd5cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9400000000-f233fbc6c58236ee4aebView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-002f-9100000000-8b5e12eba034bcfdf8a1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0920000000-b43356ad3da227b488cbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-c04f0be6515621dda5acView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-3ed8b68bfade9194763bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-fe6a1ce69851a8c5db00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-aafdcea07be221817fd4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-66a5b9a0a48bdc0a2b47View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-13eb4252ca23455a58daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-fb85798746829bac3f3dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03e9-0839226000-5504e667281c746669ecView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-f65cb3ad2fa730c922f7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-a9276fe43ef61b4693e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a59-0039210000-21b4bd9870bf4965a6d1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0848491200-aae99eb0b66dd1c7036dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-4104a2ca5d5ef5f22f6dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-f309996d57a95c719debView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0013090000-112cd9c2eea42dbc079bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-c7f95918d936586f633dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03yi-1900000000-d1682546c1e0893c71e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-a0cc78ed35e56dd812a5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00kf-9500000000-d3f399f5dd10e338e25aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9200000000-8acd8d370f194bfe28edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-6b26ce2f5b326ace12a4View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-3900000000-7a26097fda66f2f445b5View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureL-tyrosine is absorbed from the small intestine by a sodium-dependent active transport process.
Mechanism of ToxicityTyrosine is produced in cells by hydroxylating the essential amino acid phenylalanine. This relationship is much like that between cysteine and methionine. Half of the phenylalanine required goes into the production of tyrosine; if the diet is rich in tyrosine itself, the requirements for phenylalanine are reduced by about 50%. The mechanism of L-tyrosine's antidepressant activity can be accounted for by the precursor role of L-tyrosine in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. Elevated brain norepinephrine and dopamine levels are thought to be associated with antidepressant effects.
MetabolismIn the liver, L-tyrosine is involved in a number of biochemical reactions, including protein synthesis and oxidative catabolic reactions. L-tyrosine that is not metabolized in the liver is distributed via the systemic circulation to the various tissues of the body.
Toxicity ValuesLD50 (oral, rat) > 5110 mg/kg
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesTyrosine is claimed to act as an effective antidepressant, however results are mixed. Tyrosine has also been claimed to reduce stress and combat narcolepsy and chronic fatigue, however these claims have been refuted by some studies.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00135
HMDB IDHMDB00158
PubChem Compound ID6057
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL925
ChemSpider ID5833
KEGG IDC01536
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17895
BioCyc IDTYR
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDTYR
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkL-Tyrosine
References
Synthesis Reference

Hai-quan Mao, Kam W. Leong, “Biodegradable poly (phosphoester-co-desaminotyrosyl L-tyrosine ester) compounds, compositions, articles and methods for making and using the same.” U.S. Patent US5912225, issued May, 1960.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Hoffhines AJ, Damoc E, Bridges KG, Leary JA, Moore KL: Detection and purification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins using a novel anti-sulfotyrosine monoclonal antibody. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 8;281(49):37877-87. Epub 2006 Oct 17. [17046811 ]
  2. Molnar GA, Wagner Z, Marko L, Ko Szegi T, Mohas M, Kocsis B, Matus Z, Wagner L, Tamasko M, Mazak I, Laczy B, Nagy J, Wittmann I: Urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion in diabetes mellitus and renal failure: evidence for hydroxyl radical production. Kidney Int. 2005 Nov;68(5):2281-7. [16221230 ]
  3. Molnar GA, Nemes V, Biro Z, Ludany A, Wagner Z, Wittmann I: Accumulation of the hydroxyl free radical markers meta-, ortho-tyrosine and DOPA in cataractous lenses is accompanied by a lower protein and phenylalanine content of the water-soluble phase. Free Radic Res. 2005 Dec;39(12):1359-66. [16298866 ]
  4. Deng C, Shang C, Hu Y, Zhang X: Rapid diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other aminoacidemias by quantitative analysis of amino acids in neonatal blood spots by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Jul 25;775(1):115-20. [12101068 ]
  5. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
  6. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
  7. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
  8. Flamen P, Bernheim N, Deron P, Caveliers V, Chavatte K, Franken PR, Bossuyt A: Iodine-123 alpha-methyl-l-tyrosine single-photon emission tomography for the visualization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Eur J Nucl Med. 1998 Feb;25(2):177-81. [9473267 ]
  9. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [9849813 ]
  10. Ishiwata K, Tsukada H, Kubota K, Nariai T, Harada N, Kawamura K, Kimura Y, Oda K, Iwata R, Ishii K: Preclinical and clinical evaluation of O-[11C]methyl-L-tyrosine for tumor imaging by positron emission tomography. Nucl Med Biol. 2005 Apr;32(3):253-62. [15820760 ]
  11. Wannemacher RW Jr, Klainer AS, Dinterman RE, Beisel WR: The significance and mechanism of an increased serum phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio during infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Sep;29(9):997-1006. [822705 ]
  12. Eklundh T, Eriksson M, Sjoberg S, Nordin C: Monoamine precursors, transmitters and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid: a prospective study in healthy male subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 1996 May-Jun;30(3):201-8. [8884658 ]
  13. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  14. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
  15. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [12834252 ]
  16. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [6198473 ]
  17. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Gene Name:
TH
Uniprot ID:
P07101
Molecular Weight:
58599.545 Da
References
  1. Olsovska J, Novotna J, Flieger M, Spizek J: Assay of tyrosine hydroxylase based on high-performance liquid chromatography separation and quantification of L-dopa and L-tyrosine. Biomed Chromatogr. 2007 Dec;21(12):1252-8. [17604359 ]
  2. Bodnar I, Hechtl D, Szekacs D, Olah M, Nagy GM: Effect of local (intracerebral and intracerebroventricular) administration of tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor on the neuroendocrine dopaminergic neurons and prolactin release. Ideggyogy Sz. 2007 Mar 30;60(3-4):177-81. [17451064 ]
  3. Rostrup M, Fossbakk A, Hauge A, Kleppe R, Gnaiger E, Haavik J: Oxygen dependence of tyrosine hydroxylase. Amino Acids. 2008 Apr;34(3):455-64. Epub 2007 May 23. [17520326 ]
  4. Richards AB, Scheel TA, Wang K, Henkemeyer M, Kromer LF: EphB1 null mice exhibit neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars reticulata and spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(9):2619-28. [17561836 ]
  5. Ugriumov MV: [Brain neurons partly expressing monoaminergic phenotype: distribution, development, and functional significance]. Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2007 Apr-Jun;38(2):3-25. [17578016 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General Function:
Tyrosine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).
Gene Name:
YARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Z4
Molecular Weight:
53198.56 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Zhang Y, Wang L, Schultz PG, Wilson IA: Crystal structures of apo wild-type M. jannaschii tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and an engineered TyrRS specific for O-methyl-L-tyrosine. Protein Sci. 2005 May;14(5):1340-9. [15840835 ]
  4. Kiga D, Sakamoto K, Kodama K, Kigawa T, Matsuda T, Yabuki T, Shirouzu M, Harada Y, Nakayama H, Takio K, Hasegawa Y, Endo Y, Hirao I, Yokoyama S: An engineered Escherichia coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase for site-specific incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into proteins in eukaryotic translation and its application in a wheat germ cell-free system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23;99(15):9715-20. Epub 2002 Jul 3. [12097643 ]
  5. Kobayashi T, Nureki O, Ishitani R, Yaremchuk A, Tukalo M, Cusack S, Sakamoto K, Yokoyama S: Structural basis for orthogonal tRNA specificities of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases for genetic code expansion. Nat Struct Biol. 2003 Jun;10(6):425-32. [12754495 ]
General Function:
Tubulin-tyrosine ligase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational addition of a tyrosine to the C-terminal end of detyrosinated alpha-tubulin.
Gene Name:
TTL
Uniprot ID:
Q8NG68
Molecular Weight:
43211.94 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory25 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 18129
References
  1. Banerjee A, Panosian TD, Mukherjee K, Ravindra R, Gal S, Sackett DL, Bane S: Site-specific orthogonal labeling of the carboxy terminus of alpha-tubulin. ACS Chem Biol. 2010 Aug 20;5(8):777-85. doi: 10.1021/cb100060v. [20545322 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
P17735
Molecular Weight:
50398.895 Da
References
  1. Dong S, Kang S, Gu TL, Kardar S, Fu H, Lonial S, Khoury HJ, Khuri F, Chen J: 14-3-3 Integrates prosurvival signals mediated by the AKT and MAPK pathways in ZNF198-FGFR1-transformed hematopoietic cells. Blood. 2007 Jul 1;110(1):360-9. Epub 2007 Mar 27. [17389761 ]
General Function:
Tyrosine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).
Gene Name:
YARS
Uniprot ID:
P54577
Molecular Weight:
59143.025 Da
References
  1. Bonnefond L, Frugier M, Touze E, Lorber B, Florentz C, Giege R, Rudinger-Thirion J, Sauter C: Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: the first crystallization of a human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Apr 1;63(Pt 4):338-41. Epub 2007 Mar 30. [17401211 ]