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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:51:02 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:48 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4405
Identification
Common NameCalcium
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCalcium is essential for the normal growth and maintenance of bones and teeth, and calcium requirements must be met throughout life. Requirements are greatest during periods of growth, such as childhood, during pregnancy and when breast-feeding. Long-term calcium deficiency can lead to osteoporosis, in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased risk of fractures. Adults need between 1,000 and 1,300 mg of calcium in their daily diet. Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, and is the most common metal in many animals. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Calcium combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet. A deficit can affect bone and tooth formation, while overretention can cause kidney stones. Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. Dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are a well-known source of calcium. However, some individuals are allergic to dairy products and even more people, particularly those of non-European descent, are lactose-intolerant, leaving them unable to consume dairy products. Fortunately, many other good sources of calcium exist. These include: seaweeds such as kelp, wakame and hijiki; nuts and seeds (like almonds and sesame); beans; amaranth; collard greens; okra; rutabaga; broccoli; kale; and fortified products such as orange juice and soy milk. Calcium has also been found to assist in the production of lymphatic fluids. Getting too much calcium can cause constipation. It might also interfere with the body's ability to absorb iron and zinc. In adults, too much calcium from dietary supplements might increase the risk of kidney stones. Too much calcium from food sources does not increase that risk.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Nutraceutical
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Ca
Calcium element
Chemical FormulaCa
Average Molecular Mass40.077 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass39.961 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7440-70-2
IUPAC Namecalcium(2+) ion
Traditional Namecalcium(2+) ion
SMILES[Ca++]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Ca/q+2
InChI KeyInChIKey=BHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
HypophosphatasiaSMP00503 Not Available
Wolman diseaseSMP00511 Not Available
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiencySMP00557 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point839°C
Boiling Point1484°C
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.57ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityCalcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. More than 500 human proteins are known to bind or transport calcium. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Parathyroid hormone (secreted from the parathyroid gland) regulates the resorption of Ca2+ from bone. Calcitonin stimulates incorporation of calcium in bone, although this process is largely independent of calcitonin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast. The currently recommended calcium intake is 1,500 milligrams per day for women not taking estrogen and 800 milligrams per day for women on estrogen. There is close to 300 milligrams of calcium in one cup of fluid milk. Calcium carbonate is currently the best and least expensive form of calcium supplement available.
Metabolism Route of Elimination: The kidney excretes 250 mmol a day in urine, and resorbs 245 mmol, leading to a net loss in the urine of 5 mmol/d.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesCalcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. It is vital in cell signaling, muscular contractions, bone health, and signalling cascades.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01373
HMDB IDHMDB00464
PubChem Compound ID271
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID266
KEGG IDC00076
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID22984
BioCyc IDCA%2b2
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDCA
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCalcium
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6. [9278463 ]
  2. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548. [16034903 ]
  3. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. [16481635 ]
  4. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8. [15885294 ]
  5. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003. [15860827 ]
  6. Boonen S, Vanderschueren D, Haentjens P, Lips P: Calcium and vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis - a clinical update. J Intern Med. 2006 Jun;259(6):539-52. [16704554 ]
  7. Gennari C: Calcium and vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Apr;4(2B):547-59. [11683549 ]
  8. Kirchhoff P, Geibel JP: Role of calcium and other trace elements in the gastrointestinal physiology. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 May 28;12(20):3229-36. [16718844 ]
  9. Gross MD: Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of prostate and colon cancer: new approaches for the identification of needs. J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):326-31. [15671236 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Titin binding
Specific Function:
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CCP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis.
Gene Name:
CALM1
Uniprot ID:
P0DP23
Molecular Weight:
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Sosa V, Carbo R, Guarner V: Participation of glucose transporters on atrial natriuretic peptide-induced glucose uptake by adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes under oxygenation and hypoxia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 30;568(1-3):83-8. Epub 2007 Apr 30. [17537429 ]
  2. Zhou Z, Yin J, Dou Z, Tang J, Zhang C, Cao Y: The calponin homology domain of Vav1 associates with calmodulin and is prerequisite to T cell antigen receptor-induced calcium release in Jurkat T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10;282(32):23737-44. Epub 2007 Jun 5. [17550897 ]
  3. Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NC, Zothner C, Abou Elloof MM, Wood JM: Hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress disrupts calcium binding on calmodulin: more evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Aug 17;360(1):70-5. Epub 2007 Jun 11. [17592724 ]
  4. Caride AJ, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT, Strehler EE: The plasma membrane Ca2+ pump isoform 4a differs from isoform 4b in the mechanism of calmodulin binding and activation kinetics: implications for Ca2+ signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 31;282(35):25640-8. Epub 2007 Jun 26. [17595168 ]
  5. Lo LW, Chen YC, Chen YJ, Wongcharoen W, Lin CI, Chen SA: Calmodulin kinase II inhibition prevents arrhythmic activity induced by alpha and beta adrenergic agonists in rabbit pulmonary veins. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct 1;571(2-3):197-208. Epub 2007 Jun 13. [17612522 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly-distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each monomer. Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the binding of both divalent cations, especially affecting high-affinity calcium-binding sites. Binds to and initiates the activation of STK38 by releasing autoinhibitory intramolecular interactions within the kinase. Interaction with AGER after myocardial infarction may play a role in myocyte apoptosis by activating ERK1/2 and p53/TP53 signaling. Could assist ATAD3A cytoplasmic processing, preventing aggregation and favoring mitochondrial localization. May mediate calcium-dependent regulation on many physiological processes by interacting with other proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and modulating their activity.
Gene Name:
S100B
Uniprot ID:
P04271
Molecular Weight:
10712.985 Da
References
  1. Lee TS, Mane S, Eid T, Zhao H, Lin A, Guan Z, Kim JH, Schweitzer J, King-Stevens D, Weber P, Spencer SS, Spencer DD, de Lanerolle NC: Gene expression in temporal lobe epilepsy is consistent with increased release of glutamate by astrocytes. Mol Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1-2):1-13. [17515952 ]
  2. Marlatt NM, Shaw GS: Amide exchange shows calcium-induced conformational changes are transmitted to the dimer interface of S100B. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 26;46(25):7478-87. Epub 2007 May 31. [17536784 ]
  3. Liang J, Luo G, Ning X, Shi Y, Zhai H, Sun S, Jin H, Liu Z, Zhang F, Lu Y, Zhao Y, Chen X, Zhang H, Guo X, Wu K, Fan D: Differential expression of calcium-related genes in gastric cancer cells transfected with cellular prion protein. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Jun;85(3):375-83. [17612632 ]
  4. Friel LA, Romero R, Edwin S, Nien JK, Gomez R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kusanovic JP, Tolosa JE, Hassan SS, Espinoza J: The calcium binding protein, S100B, is increased in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation and preterm labor with intact or ruptured membranes. J Perinat Med. 2007;35(5):385-93. [17624933 ]
General Function:
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function:
Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site for tropomyosin and Tn-C. The binding of calcium to Tn-C abolishes the inhibitory action of Tn on actin filaments.
Gene Name:
TNNC2
Uniprot ID:
P02585
Molecular Weight:
18121.895 Da
References
  1. Martin SR, Avella G, Adrover M, de Nicola GF, Bullard B, Pastore A: Binding properties of the calcium-activated F2 isoform of Lethocerus troponin C. Biochemistry. 2011 Mar 22;50(11):1839-47. doi: 10.1021/bi102076s. Epub 2011 Feb 10. [21250664 ]
  2. Kreutziger KL, Piroddi N, McMichael JT, Tesi C, Poggesi C, Regnier M: Calcium binding kinetics of troponin C strongly modulate cooperative activation and tension kinetics in cardiac muscle. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Jan;50(1):165-74. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.10.025. Epub 2010 Oct 28. [21035455 ]
  3. Robertson IM, Sun YB, Li MX, Sykes BD: A structural and functional perspective into the mechanism of Ca2+-sensitizers that target the cardiac troponin complex. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Dec;49(6):1031-41. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.08.019. Epub 2010 Aug 27. [20801130 ]
  4. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.064105. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [20371872 ]
General Function:
Troponin t binding
Specific Function:
Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site for tropomyosin and Tn-C. The binding of calcium to Tn-C abolishes the inhibitory action of Tn on actin filaments.
Gene Name:
TNNC1
Uniprot ID:
P63316
Molecular Weight:
18402.36 Da
References
  1. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.064105. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [20371872 ]
  2. Swindle N, Tikunova SB: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutation D145E drastically alters calcium binding by the C-domain of cardiac troponin C. Biochemistry. 2010 Jun 15;49(23):4813-20. doi: 10.1021/bi100400h. [20459070 ]
  3. Parvatiyar MS, Pinto JR, Liang J, Potter JD: Predicting cardiomyopathic phenotypes by altering Ca2+ affinity of cardiac troponin C. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 3;285(36):27785-97. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.112326. Epub 2010 Jun 21. [20566645 ]
  4. Baylor SM, Hollingworth S: Calcium indicators and calcium signalling in skeletal muscle fibres during excitation-contraction coupling. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011 May;105(3):162-79. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2010.06.001. Epub 2010 Jun 25. [20599552 ]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Shi X, Chen M, Huvos PE, Hardwicke PM: Amino acid sequence of a Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the cross-striated part of the adductor muscle of the deep sea scallop: comparison to serca enzymes of other animals. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Jun;120(2):359-74. [9787799 ]
  2. Bonza MC, Martin H, Kang M, Lewis G, Greiner T, Giacometti S, Van Etten JL, De Michelis MI, Thiel G, Moroni A: A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses. J Gen Virol. 2010 Oct;91(Pt 10):2620-9. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.021873-0. Epub 2010 Jun 23. [20573858 ]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Specific inhibition of calpain (calcium-dependent cysteine protease). Plays a key role in postmortem tenderization of meat and have been proposed to be involved in muscle protein degradation in living tissue.
Gene Name:
CAST
Uniprot ID:
P20810
Molecular Weight:
76572.035 Da
References
  1. Hanna RA, Garcia-Diaz BE, Davies PL: Calpastatin simultaneously binds four calpains with different kinetic constants. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 26;581(16):2894-8. Epub 2007 May 25. [17543955 ]
  2. De Tullio R, Averna M, Stifanese R, Parr T, Bardsley RG, Pontremoli S, Melloni E: Multiple rat brain calpastatin forms are produced by distinct starting points and alternative splicing of the N-terminal exons. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Sep 1;465(1):148-56. Epub 2007 May 30. [17570336 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPP
Uniprot ID:
P05187
Molecular Weight:
57953.31 Da
References
  1. Llinas P, Masella M, Stigbrand T, Menez A, Stura EA, Le Du MH: Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: implication for its secondary effect in bones. Protein Sci. 2006 Jul;15(7):1691-700. [16815919 ]
General Function:
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function:
This protein is an anticoagulant protein that acts as an indirect inhibitor of the thromboplastin-specific complex, which is involved in the blood coagulation cascade.
Gene Name:
ANXA5
Uniprot ID:
P08758
Molecular Weight:
35936.375 Da
References
  1. Bouton CM, Hossain MA, Frelin LP, Laterra J, Pevsner J: Microarray analysis of differential gene expression in lead-exposed astrocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001 Oct 1;176(1):34-53. [11578147 ]
General Function:
Protease binding
Specific Function:
May play a role in the structural integrity of cartilage via its interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as the collagens and fibronectin. Can mediate the interaction of chondrocytes with the cartilage extracellular matrix through interaction with cell surface integrin receptors. Could play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Potent suppressor of apoptosis in both primary chondrocytes and transformed cells. Suppresses apoptosis by blocking the activation of caspase-3 and by inducing the IAP family of survival proteins (BIRC3, BIRC2, BIRC5 and XIAP). Essential for maintaining a vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contractile/differentiated phenotype under physiological and pathological stimuli. Maintains this phenotype of VSMCs by interacting with ITGA7 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
COMP
Uniprot ID:
P49747
Molecular Weight:
82859.88 Da
References
  1. Chen FH, Herndon ME, Patel N, Hecht JT, Tuan RS, Lawler J: Interaction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin 5 with aggrecan. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 24;282(34):24591-8. Epub 2007 Jun 22. [17588949 ]
General Function:
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iron transport across the cell membrane. Provides Cu(2+) ions for the ascorbate-mediated deaminase degradation of the heparan sulfate chains of GPC1. May also play a role in fetal lung development or pulmonary antioxidant defense (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CP
Uniprot ID:
P00450
Molecular Weight:
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Bento I, Peixoto C, Zaitsev VN, Lindley PF: Ceruloplasmin revisited: structural and functional roles of various metal cation-binding sites. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Feb;63(Pt 2):240-8. Epub 2007 Jan 16. [17242517 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
Senses changes in the extracellular concentration of calcium ions. The activity of this receptor is mediated by a G-protein that activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
Gene Name:
CASR
Uniprot ID:
P41180
Molecular Weight:
120672.385 Da
References
  1. El Hiani Y, Ahidouch A, Roudbaraki M, Guenin S, Brule G, Ouadid-Ahidouch H: Calcium-sensing receptor stimulation induces nonselective cation channel activation in breast cancer cells. J Membr Biol. 2006;211(2):127-37. Epub 2006 Oct 14. [17041782 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of bone
Specific Function:
Associates with the organic matrix of bone and cartilage. Thought to act as an inhibitor of bone formation.
Gene Name:
MGP
Uniprot ID:
P08493
Molecular Weight:
12353.06 Da
References
  1. Yao Y, Shahbazian A, Bostrom KI: Proline and gamma-carboxylated glutamate residues in matrix Gla protein are critical for binding of bone morphogenetic protein-4. Circ Res. 2008 May 9;102(9):1065-74. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.166124. Epub 2008 Mar 27. [18369157 ]
General Function:
Protein dimerization activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-binding protein required for T-cell receptor-, Fas-, and glucocorticoid-induced cell death. May mediate Ca(2+)-regulated signals along the death pathway (By similarity). Calcium-dependent adapter necessary for the association between PDCD6IP and TSG101. Interaction with DAPK1 can accelerate apoptotic cell death by increasing caspase-3 activity. May inhibit KDR/VEGFR2-dependent angiogenesis; the function involves inhibition of VEGF-induced phosphoprylation of the Akt signaling pathway. Seems to play a role in the regulation of the distribution and function of MCOLN1 in the endosomal pathway. Isoform 2 has a lower Ca(2+) affinity than isoform 1. Isoform 1 and, to a lesser extend, isoform 2, can stabilize SHISA5.
Gene Name:
PDCD6
Uniprot ID:
O75340
Molecular Weight:
21868.32 Da
References
  1. Suzuki H, Kawasaki M, Kakiuchi T, Shibata H, Wakatsuki S, Maki M: Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of N-terminally truncated human ALG-2. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008 Nov 1;64(Pt 11):974-7. doi: 10.1107/S1744309108030297. Epub 2008 Oct 31. [18997320 ]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
May function as calcium sensor and modulator, contributing to cellular calcium signaling. May function by interacting with other proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and indirectly play a role in many physiological processes. May also play a role in suppressing tumor cell growth.
Gene Name:
S100A2
Uniprot ID:
P29034
Molecular Weight:
11116.695 Da
References
  1. Koch M, Bhattacharya S, Kehl T, Gimona M, Vasak M, Chazin W, Heizmann CW, Kroneck PM, Fritz G: Implications on zinc binding to S100A2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Mar;1773(3):457-70. Epub 2006 Dec 19. [17239974 ]
General Function:
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function:
Potential calcium-dependent cell-adhesion protein.
Gene Name:
PCDH19
Uniprot ID:
Q8TAB3
Molecular Weight:
126251.425 Da
References
  1. Dibbens LM, Tarpey PS, Hynes K, Bayly MA, Scheffer IE, Smith R, Bomar J, Sutton E, Vandeleur L, Shoubridge C, Edkins S, Turner SJ, Stevens C, O'Meara S, Tofts C, Barthorpe S, Buck G, Cole J, Halliday K, Jones D, Lee R, Madison M, Mironenko T, Varian J, West S, Widaa S, Wray P, Teague J, Dicks E, Butler A, Menzies A, Jenkinson A, Shepherd R, Gusella JF, Afawi Z, Mazarib A, Neufeld MY, Kivity S, Lev D, Lerman-Sagie T, Korczyn AD, Derry CP, Sutherland GR, Friend K, Shaw M, Corbett M, Kim HG, Geschwind DH, Thomas P, Haan E, Ryan S, McKee S, Berkovic SF, Futreal PA, Stratton MR, Mulley JC, Gecz J: X-linked protocadherin 19 mutations cause female-limited epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Nat Genet. 2008 Jun;40(6):776-81. doi: 10.1038/ng.149. Epub 2008 May 11. [18469813 ]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Fodrin, which seems to be involved in secretion, interacts with calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner and is thus candidate for the calcium-dependent movement of the cytoskeleton at the membrane.
Gene Name:
SPTBN1
Uniprot ID:
Q01082
Molecular Weight:
274606.995 Da
References
  1. Wallis CJ, Wenegieme EF, Babitch JA: Characterization of calcium binding to brain spectrin. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 5;267(7):4333-7. [1537825 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function.
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Boda D, Giri J, Henderson D, Eisenberg B, Gillespie D: Analyzing the components of the free-energy landscape in a calcium selective ion channel by Widom's particle insertion method. J Chem Phys. 2011 Feb 7;134(5):055102. doi: 10.1063/1.3532937. [21303162 ]