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Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:51:04 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:48 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4409
Common NameXanthine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionXanthine is a purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed.).
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Xanthic oxide
Chemical FormulaC5H4N4O2
Average Molecular Mass152.111 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass152.033 g/mol
CAS Registry Number69-89-6
IUPAC Name2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Namexanthine
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H4N4O2/c10-4-2-3(7-1-6-2)8-5(11)9-4/h1H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10,11)
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
  • Xanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Lactam
  • Urea
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testes
Purine MetabolismSMP00050 map00230
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512 Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513 Not Available
Molybdenium Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203 Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point> 300°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.069 mg/mL at 16°C; 9.5 mg/mL (sodium salt)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility4.91 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.95ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.88 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity36.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.7 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f6t-0924000000-9b80e0a2a60c73ca0180JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f6t-0924000000-9b80e0a2a60c73ca0180JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f6t-0924000000-30dc5892eecde860846aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0kai-7900000000-2dc30b0fc4cff2239dbeJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0900000000-a70539989d121bfacee0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-6900000000-b047b06406308dbaeda8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9300000000-ed480ed920c3e9b576ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0zfr-0900000000-efb049914c9bce596267JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0zfr-0900000000-efb049914c9bce596267JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-5fee91293851bb02193eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-4568a814903ff411923aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00kf-9000000000-e078a358156f5a04d4c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-3900000000-250f7dc30d6fd96a4ef6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0ik9-0900000000-3a6dad2473c1654789f6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-a4e9443b51c3ac2fc58bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00kf-9000000000-d23801a49488b1a5f0a2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-4900000000-b177a2a36043e5e87efcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 35V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-cb3b35c3117b7f36bf5cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-0900000000-8d2a19e7c37d2cb7658fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Negativesplash10-05mo-9300000000-33d00ab2288aaa055517JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0ik9-1900000000-3a6dad2473c1654789f6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-37e76df2401a85967caaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 35V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-4132da06dda895afc3abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-2e9e069e2df414aed037JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0w29-0900000000-fa52193346bc456d89e8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a5i-9400000000-bbf70998e8b7515cb440JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-566d663553ce4f0ec207JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-1900000000-d0a5d2c0f89f8d42d903JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-351d9f8ee3470f911829JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-7900000000-2d5ab5d5db8ff4981467JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityXanthine is a poorly soluble compound. As a result high concentrations of serum xanthine can lead to the formation of kidney stones (xanthine kidney stones) which can, over the long term, induce kidney failure.
MetabolismXanthine is readily converted to uric acid. The enzyme xanthine oxidase makes uric acid from xanthine and hypoxanthine, which in turn are produced from other purines. In humans and higher primates, uric acid is the final oxidation (breakdown) product of purine metabolism and is excreted in urine.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronically high concentrations of xanthine can lead to health problems such as renal failure and xanthine kidney stones, one of the rarest types of kidney stones. Chronically high levels of xanthine are associated with at least 4 inborn errors of metabolism including: Xanthinuria type I, Xanthuria type II, Molybdenium Cofactor Deficiency, and Xanthinuria.
SymptomsMay lead to arthropathy, myopathy, crystal nephropathy, urolithiasis, or renal failure.
TreatmentChronic Exposure: Kidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of xanthine toxicity until normal kidney function can be restored. Acute Exposure: EYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02134
PubChem Compound ID1188
ChemSpider ID1151
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17712
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkXanthine
Synthesis Reference

John P. Zikakis, “Preparation of high purity xanthine oxidase from bovine milk.” U.S. Patent US4172763, issued October 30, 1979.

General References
  1. Ihara H, Shino Y, Morita Y, Kawaguchi E, Hashizume N, Yoshida M: Is skeletal muscle damaged by the oxidative stress following anaerobic exercise? J Clin Lab Anal. 2001;15(5):239-43. [11574951 ]
  2. Niklasson F: Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of hypoxanthine, xanthine, urate, and creatinine in cerebrospinal fluid, with direct injection. Clin Chem. 1983 Aug;29(8):1543-6. [6872216 ]
  3. Teeuwen HW, Elbers EL, van Rossum JM: Rapid and sensitive gas-chromatographic determination of caffeine in blood plasma, saliva, and xanthine beverages. Mol Biol Rep. 1991 Feb;15(1):1-7. [1875916 ]
  4. Castro-Gago M, Rodriguez IN, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Guitian JP, Rocamonde SL, Rodriguez-Segade S: Therapeutic criteria in hydrocephalic children. Childs Nerv Syst. 1989 Dec;5(6):361-3. [2611770 ]
  5. Kaya M, Moriwaki Y, Ka T, Inokuchi T, Yamamoto A, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Tsuzita J, Oku Y, Yamamoto T: Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of purine bases (uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and oxypurinol after rigorous exercise. Metabolism. 2006 Jan;55(1):103-7. [16324927 ]
  6. Liu Z, Li T, Wang E: Simultaneous determination of guanine, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. Analyst. 1995 Aug;120(8):2181-4. [7677251 ]
  7. Becker MA, Kisicki J, Khosravan R, Wu J, Mulford D, Hunt B, MacDonald P, Joseph-Ridge N: Febuxostat (TMX-67), a novel, non-purine, selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, is safe and decreases serum urate in healthy volunteers. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1111-6. [15571211 ]
  8. Kawasaki N, Tanimoto T, Tanaka A, Hayakawa T, Miyasaka N: Determination of non-protein-bound iron in human synovial fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 Jun 17;656(2):436-40. [7987499 ]
  9. Cooper N, Khosravan R, Erdmann C, Fiene J, Lee JW: Quantification of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine in human serum by HPLC for pharmacodynamic studies. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Jun 6;837(1-2):1-10. Epub 2006 May 2. [16631418 ]
  10. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [6656991 ]
  11. Kiss A, Barenyi M, Csontai A: Xanthine stone in the urinary bladder of a male child. Urol Int. 1999;63(4):242-4. [10743702 ]
  12. Kjaergaard N, Moller-Petersen JF, Kristiansen FV, Petersen PL, Ekelund S, Skovbo P: Xanthine and hypoxanthine in amniotic fluid during pregnancy. Dan Med Bull. 1990 Dec;37(6):559-60. [2127397 ]
  13. Wiley DM, Szabo I, Maguire MH, Finley BE, Bennett TL: Measurement of hypoxanthine and xanthine in late-gestation human amniotic fluid by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. J Chromatogr. 1990 Nov 30;533:73-86. [2081781 ]
  14. Gudbjornsson B, Zak A, Niklasson F, Hallgren R: Hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory arthritides. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 Oct;50(10):669-72. [1958086 ]
  15. Ginsburg I: Could synergistic interactions among reactive oxygen species, proteinases, membrane-perforating enzymes, hydrolases, microbial hemolysins and cytokines be the main cause of tissue damage in infectious and inflammatory conditions? Med Hypotheses. 1998 Oct;51(4):337-46. [9824842 ]
  16. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available