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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:51:16 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:49 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4435
Identification
Common NameTyramine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionTyramine is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyramine is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. In foods, it is often produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine during fermentation or decay. Foods containing considerable amounts of tyramine include fish, chocolate, alcoholic beverages, cheese, soy sauce, sauerkraut, and processed meat. A large dietary intake of tyramine can cause an increase in systolic blood pressure of 30 mmHg or more. Tyramine acts as a neurotransmitter via a G protein-coupled receptor with high affinity for tyramine called TA1. The TA1 receptor is found in the brain as well as peripheral tissues including the kidney. An indirect sympathomimetic, Tyramine can also serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-(4'-Hydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
2-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
4- (2-Aminoethyl)-Phenol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-Phenol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-phenol(thyramin)
4-(2-Aminoethyl)phenol
4-Hydroxy-b-phenylethylamine
4-Hydroxy-Benzeneethanamine
4-Hydroxy-beta-phenylethylamine
4-Hydroxyphenethylamine
4-Hydroxyphenylethylamine
a-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethane
alpha-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane
alpha.-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane
b-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
beta-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
p-(2-Aminoethyl)-Phenol
p-(2-Aminoethyl)phenol
P-beta-Aminoethylphenol
P-Hydroxy-b-phenethylamine
P-Hydroxy-b-phenylethylamine
P-Hydroxy-beta-phenethylamine
P-Hydroxy-beta-phenylethylamine
P-Hydroxyphenethylamine
P-Hydroxyphenylethylamine
P-Tyramine
Systogene
Tenosin-wirkstoff
Tocosine
Tyramin
Tyramine base
Tyrosamine
Uteramine
Chemical FormulaC8H11NO
Average Molecular Mass137.179 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass137.084 g/mol
CAS Registry Number51-67-2
IUPAC Name4-(2-aminoethyl)phenol
Traditional Nametyramine
SMILESNCCC1=CC=C(O)C=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C8H11NO/c9-6-5-7-1-3-8(10)4-2-7/h1-4,10H,5-6,9H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=DZGWFCGJZKJUFP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenethylamines. Phenethylamines are compounds containing a phenethylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the second position by an ethan-1-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentPhenethylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenethylamine
  • 2-arylethylamine
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Nerve Cells
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Spleen
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006 map00350
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point164 - 165°C
Boiling Point166°C (330.8°F)
Solubility10.4 mg/mL at 15°C
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.72 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.14ALOGPS
logP0.68ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.66ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.25 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity41.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.33 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-2900000000-273503edc6a220e152b6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2900000000-80980d19fa83d4b86f91JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9700000000-78d2ae48da1eee18358eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-9200000000-50c21473a7d48011358cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1900000000-9b1000a8978b57919c35JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2900000000-273503edc6a220e152b6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2900000000-80980d19fa83d4b86f91JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9700000000-78d2ae48da1eee18358eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2900000000-69892c95ab2778a208b3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9600000000-1d5276a762318a00832dJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fk9-7900000000-8f3b164f36bc5a4df4d7JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-0900000000-3229081a448a277191a2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004l-9300000000-e2fc12d41e4c40a9a296JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-92f0b12d0a64443cede8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-001i-9200000000-50c21473a7d48011358cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-d7e9a8705227b4504c5cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-3f02b334907c40a8315cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-e98b3afc6fad78d45d38JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-54239e66d89de3096ca8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0079-0902000000-f09759fc06ef461f3aa5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-9ffe6ee0ce68182216f7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-020a5decfb44fc4f97dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0930000000-32ccc375e75dbab3195cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-51c6cc08017f1672b791JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-55c25dd64462c06c5316JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0f96-9500000000-83a70aec6da00b51a6dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9100000000-5f044e831c0d2db255faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-99edae3913507430bf9fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-4900000000-8944003750ac547c2024JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-066947a256844eb6cbdcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0079-0900000000-8fb72547243614622ba3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-44bf2322645e5e00b029JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uml-9400000000-343b8fa44c724b1395c6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-7da5f9953041f5148f8eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-e62cf6efa07eeeaf1f51JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-066r-7900000000-4f78b5370ece8150a8c4JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-053r-9500000000-6deb2b5d214f768ca448JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityTyramine is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismParaoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of OP exposure.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsSymptoms of low dose exposure include excessive salivation and eye-watering. Acute dose symptoms include severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Hypertension, hypoglycemia, anxiety, headache, tremor and ataxia may also result.
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00306
PubChem Compound ID5610
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL11608
ChemSpider ID5408
KEGG IDC00483
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID15760
BioCyc IDCPD-7650
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDAEF
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTyramine
References
Synthesis ReferenceWang, Yalou; Xie, Dongmei. Improved synthesis method of tyramine. Zhongguo Yaowu Huaxue Zazhi (1994), 4(2), 128-9.
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Jacob G, Costa F, Vincent S, Robertson D, Biaggioni I: Neurovascular dissociation with paradoxical forearm vasodilation during systemic tyramine administration. Circulation. 2003 May 20;107(19):2475-9. Epub 2003 Apr 21. [12707242 ]
  2. Nakai T, Yamada R: Basic and clinical reevaluation of tyramine and histamine tests for the investigation of adrenomedullary sympathetic functions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Jul;57(1):19-23. [6853676 ]
  3. Tyce GM, Stockard J, Sharpless NS, Muenter MD: Excretion of amines and their metabolites by two patients in hepatic coma treated with L-dopa. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983 Sep;34(3):390-8. [6883916 ]
  4. Jayanthi LD, Balasubramanian N, Balasubramanian AS: Cholinesterases exhibiting aryl acylamidase activity in human amniotic fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 1992 Feb 14;205(3):157-66. [1349516 ]
  5. Watson DG, Midgley JM, Chen RN, Huang W, Bain GM, McDonald NM, Reid JL, McGhee CN: Analysis of biogenic amines and their metabolites in biological tissues and fluids by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NICIMS). J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1990;8(8-12):899-904. [2100639 ]
  6. Chalon SA, Granier LA, Vandenhende FR, Bieck PR, Bymaster FP, Joliat MJ, Hirth C, Potter WZ: Duloxetine increases serotonin and norepinephrine availability in healthy subjects: a double-blind, controlled study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Sep;28(9):1685-93. Epub 2003 May 28. [12784100 ]
  7. Yin SJ, Lee SC: Tyramine interference in assay of serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Clin Chem. 1977 Mar;23(3):617-8. [319927 ]
  8. Andrew R, Watson DG, Best SA, Midgley JM, Wenlong H, Petty RK: The determination of hydroxydopamines and other trace amines in the urine of parkinsonian patients and normal controls. Neurochem Res. 1993 Nov;18(11):1175-7. [8255370 ]
  9. Markianos E, Backman H: Diurnal changes in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in serum of man. J Neural Transm. 1976;39(1-2):79-93. [988114 ]
  10. Causon RC, Brown MJ: Measurement of tyramine in human plasma, utilising ion-pair extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. J Chromatogr. 1984 Sep 14;310(1):11-7. [6501508 ]
  11. Lin J, Cashman JR: Detoxication of tyramine by the flavin-containing monooxygenase: stereoselective formation of the trans oxime. Chem Res Toxicol. 1997 Aug;10(8):842-52. [9282832 ]
  12. Wolrath H, Forsum U, Larsson PG, Boren H: Analysis of bacterial vaginosis-related amines in vaginal fluid by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Nov;39(11):4026-31. [11682525 ]
  13. Varma DR, Chemtob S: Endothelium- and beta-2 adrenoceptor-independent relaxation of rat aorta by tyramine and certain other phenylethylamines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1096-104. [8389852 ]
  14. Gabastou JM, Nugon-Baudon L, Robert Y, Manuel C, Vaissade P, Bourgeon E, Sibeud M, Szylit O, Bourlioux P: [Digestive amines of bacterial origin and behavior disorders. Apropos of a case]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1996 Apr;44(4):275-81. [8763591 ]
  15. Hiroi T, Imaoka S, Funae Y: Dopamine formation from tyramine by CYP2D6. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Aug 28;249(3):838-43. [9731223 ]
  16. Watson DG, McGhee CN, Midgley JM, Zhou P, Doig WM: Determination of acidic metabolites of biogenic amines in human aqueous humour by gas chromatography--negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. J Neurochem. 1992 Jan;58(1):116-20. [1727423 ]
  17. Antal EJ, Hendershot PE, Batts DH, Sheu WP, Hopkins NK, Donaldson KM: Linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic: assessment of monoamine oxidase inhibition using pressor response to oral tyramine. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 May;41(5):552-62. [11361052 ]
  18. Balbi T, Fusco M, Vasapollo D, Boschetto R, Cocco P, Leon A, Farruggio A: The presence of trace amines in postmortem cerebrospinal fluid in humans. J Forensic Sci. 2005 May;50(3):630-2. [15932098 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory390 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 29135
References
  1. Wilcox RE, Tseng T, Brusniak MY, Ginsburg B, Pearlman RS, Teeter M, DuRand C, Starr S, Neve KA: CoMFA-based prediction of agonist affinities at recombinant D1 vs D2 dopamine receptors. J Med Chem. 1998 Oct 22;41(22):4385-99. [9784114 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory160 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 29135
References
  1. Wilcox RE, Tseng T, Brusniak MY, Ginsburg B, Pearlman RS, Teeter M, DuRand C, Starr S, Neve KA: CoMFA-based prediction of agonist affinities at recombinant D1 vs D2 dopamine receptors. J Med Chem. 1998 Oct 22;41(22):4385-99. [9784114 ]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems.
Gene Name:
GNA15
Uniprot ID:
P30679
Molecular Weight:
43567.615 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>29.9 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 29135
References
  1. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]
General Function:
Trace-amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for trace amines, including beta-phenylethylamine (b-PEA), p-tyramine (p-TYR), octopamine and tryptamine, with highest affinity for b-PEA and p-TYR. Unresponsive to classical biogenic amines, such as epinephrine and histamine and only partially activated by dopamine and serotonine. Trace amines are biogenic amines present in very low levels in mammalian tissues. Although some trace amines have clearly defined roles as neurotransmitters in invertebrates, the extent to which they function as true neurotransmitters in vertebrates has remained speculative. Trace amines are likely to be involved in a variety of physiological functions that have yet to be fully understood. The signal transduced by this receptor is mediated by the G(s)-class of G-proteins which activate adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
TAAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RJ0
Molecular Weight:
39091.34 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC500.88184 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 29135
References
  1. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]