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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:51:23 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4453
Identification
Common NameSuccinic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSuccinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid. The anion, succinate, is a component of the citric acid cycle capable of donating electrons to the electron transfer chain. Succinic acid is created as a byproduct of the fermentation of sugar. It lends to fermented beverages such as wine and beer a common taste that is a combination of saltiness, bitterness and acidity. Succinate is commonly used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. Succinate plays a role in the citric acid cycle, an energy-yielding process and is metabolized by succinate dehydrogenase to fumarate. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) plays an important role in the mitochondria, being both part of the respiratory chain and the Krebs cycle. SDH with a covalently attached FAD prosthetic group, binds enzyme substrates (succinate and fumarate) and physiological regulators (oxaloacetate and ATP). Oxidizing succinate links SDH to the fast-cycling Krebs cycle portion where it participates in the breakdown of acetyl-CoA throughout the whole Krebs cycle. Succinate can readily be imported into the mitochondrial matrix by the n-butylmalonate- (or phenylsuccinate-) sensitive dicarboxylate carrier in exchange with inorganic phosphate or another organic acid, e.g. malate. (1) Mutations in the four genes encoding the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase are associated with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations (i.e.: Huntington's disease. (2). Succinate also acts as an oncometabolite. Succinate inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone and DNA demethylase enzymes, resulting in epigenetic silencing that affects neuroendocrine differentiation.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Micronutrient
  • Natural Compound
  • Nutraceutical
  • Organic Compound
  • Supplement
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
1,4-Butanedioate
1,4-Butanedioic acid
Acide butanedioique
Acide succinique
Acidum succinicum
Amber acid
Asuccin
Bernsteinsaeure
Bernsteinsaure
Butandisaeure
Butanedioic acid
Butanedionic acid
Dihydrofumarate
Dihydrofumaric acid
e363
Ethylenesuccinic acid
HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH
Katasuccin
Spirit of amber
Succinate
Wormwood acid
Chemical FormulaC4H6O4
Average Molecular Mass118.088 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass118.027 g/mol
CAS Registry Number110-15-6
IUPAC Namebutanedioic acid
Traditional Namesuccinic acid
SMILESOC(=O)CCC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)
InChI KeyInChIKey=KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Carnitine SynthesisSMP00465 Not Available
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057 map00020
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072 map00250
Mitochondrial Electron Transport ChainSMP00355 map00190
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationSMP00450 Not Available
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencySMP00350 Not Available
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
Oxidative phosphorylationNot Availablemap00190
Insulin secretionNot Availablemap04911
Renin-angiotensin systemNot Availablemap04614
Metabolic PathwaysNot AvailableNot Available
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044 map00340
Benzoate DegradationNot AvailableNot Available
Cell cycleNot Availablemap04110
Pentose Phosphate PathwaySMP00031 map00030
Vitamin B6 MetabolismSMP00017 map00750
AminoglycosidesNot AvailableNot Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006 map00350
Butanoate metabolismNot Availablemap00650
Bile secretionNot Availablemap04976
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite crystalline powder
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point184°C
Boiling Point235°C
Solubility58 g/L
LogP-0.59
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility211 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.53ALOGPS
logP-0.4ChemAxon
logS0.25ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.54 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0002-0920000000-f286e6204a4163b823baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-006t-9800000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00c1-3930000000-3cc18e719822b5af661aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0kos-9100000000-f1df0903a24c305e68ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0910000000-300c33b39fb991b5a73eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0920000000-f286e6204a4163b823baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-9800000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00c1-3930000000-3cc18e719822b5af661aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-f838d863ee7c2b111f02JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xr-9300000000-f0644daf4fbb11fcc2dcJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dj-9710000000-ff8325384b9eefd19106JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9300000000-f9dc864d93a09d3074f9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9300000000-76c151de384928b2256fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-01b9-7900000000-51d2341c097f04827944JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dj-0971010000-37d214dc7a8fdc26116bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-249222ac742c1634cec9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6897d49472dba6a34a27JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0490000000-d138f8023125921b4b82JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-c20baa818f5ff5f678c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-7a49a18aa6fcb2540a12JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-7e1f195f111b4eafb4faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00xr-9400000000-e50afc90e20cd420ba9bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00xr-9600000000-43167f2549cbb5d5f7e8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-7a8bfa543dc087bea06dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-fdec6c7458176f3cbeb8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0gb9-2900000000-9d959a53833b07094158JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0l6r-9600000000-c367e11e737714d41418JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-056r-9000000000-e65aa602a8293debec36JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-e1f840494c9003279869JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-7900000000-1089efd4a3469bcf14f1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0604-9000000000-0e0e60bb202ffb004894JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05di-9100000000-c629bea41d0d3d896425JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEye contact, Inhalation, Ingestion.
Mechanism of ToxicitySuccinate can inhibit the activities of α-KG–dependent oxygenases (KDMs) and the TET family of 5-methlycytosine (5mC) hydroxylases. Succinate also mediates allosteric inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). Inhibition of HIF PHDs leads to activation of HIF-mediated pseudohypoxic response, whereas inhibition of KDMs and TET family of 5mC hydroxylases causes epigenetic alterations that ultimately cause cancer. Succination of KEAP1 in FH deficiency results in the constitutive activation of the antioxidant defense pathway mediated by NRF2, conferring a reductive milieu that promotes cell proliferation. Succination of the Krebs cycle enzyme Aco2 impairs aconitase activity in Fh1-deficient MEFs. Succination also causes irreversible inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).
MetabolismSuccinic acid can be converted into fumaric acid by oxidation via succinate dehydrogenase.
Toxicity ValuesAcute oral toxicity (LD50): 2260 mg/kg [Rat].
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not listed by IARC. Has been implicated in oncogenesis (17).
Uses/SourcesSuccinic acid is a precursor to some specialized polyesters. It is also a component of some alkyd resins. Succinic acid is used in the food and beverage industry, primarily as an acidity regulator. It is also sold as a food additive and dietary supplement, and is generally recognized as safe by the US FDA.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAt acute doses or exposures succinic acid is a skin irritant. Chronically high doses of succinate can lead to succinylation or succination of a variety of enzymes. Partial succinate dehydrogenase deficiency (15% to 50% of normal reference enzyme activity) in skeletal muscle leads to elevated succinate levels and causes mitochondrial myopathy with various symptoms, for example, brain involvement, cardiomyopathy, and/or exercise intolerance.
SymptomsAcute Exposure: the clinical signs of acute toxicity are weakness and diarrhea.
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00139
HMDB IDHMDB00254
PubChem Compound ID1110
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL576
ChemSpider ID1078
KEGG IDC00042
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID15741
BioCyc IDSUC
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDSIN
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSuccinic_acid
References
Synthesis Reference

Michael Diamantoglou, Gerhard Meyer, “Process for the production of water-insoluble fibers of cellulose monoesters of maleic acid, succinic acid and phthalic acid, having an extremely high absorbability for water and physiological liquids.” U.S. Patent US4734239, issued April, 1941.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Briere JJ, Favier J, El Ghouzzi V, Djouadi F, Benit P, Gimenez AP, Rustin P: Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in human. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Oct;62(19-20):2317-24. [16143825 ]
  2. Rustin P, Rotig A: Inborn errors of complex II--unusual human mitochondrial diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Jan 17;1553(1-2):117-22. [11803021 ]
  3. Magera MJ, Helgeson JK, Matern D, Rinaldo P: Methylmalonic acid measured in plasma and urine by stable-isotope dilution and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2000 Nov;46(11):1804-10. [11067816 ]
  4. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [8087979 ]
  5. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. [9693263 ]
  6. Zhang TM, Sener A, Malaisse WJ: Hydrolysis of succinic acid dimethyl ester in rat pancreatic islets. Biochem Mol Med. 1995 Aug;55(2):131-7. [7582870 ]
  7. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [7729054 ]
  8. Groenen PM, Engelke UF, Wevers RA, Hendriks JC, Eskes TK, Merkus HM, Steegers-Theunissen RP: High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy of amniotic fluids from spina bifida fetuses and controls. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004 Jan 15;112(1):16-23. [14687733 ]
  9. Meijer-Severs GJ, van Santen E: Short-chain fatty acids and succinate in feces of healthy human volunteers and their correlation with anaerobe cultural counts. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1987 Aug;22(6):672-6. [3659829 ]
  10. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  11. Ren LC, Huang XY, Long JH: [Effects of succinic acid on the function of in vitro cultured human fibroblasts]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2004 Feb;20(1):34-6. [15059451 ]
  12. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [8412012 ]
  13. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Heerschap A: High-resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy of blood plasma for metabolic studies. Clin Chem. 1994 Jul;40(7 Pt 1):1245-50. [8013094 ]
  14. Borenstein DG, Gibbs CA, Jacobs RP: Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of synovial fluid: volatile short-chain fatty acids in septic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1983 Aug;42(4):362-7. [6882030 ]
  15. Frenkel G, Peterson RN, Freund M: Oxidative and glycolytic metabolism of semen components by washed guinea pig spermatozoa. Fertil Steril. 1975 Feb;26(2):144-7. [1126459 ]
  16. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
  17. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
  18. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Succinate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
High-affinity sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter that accepts a range of substrates with 4-5 carbon atoms. The stoichiometry is probably 3 Na(+) for 1 divalent succinate.
Gene Name:
SLC13A3
Uniprot ID:
Q8WWT9
Molecular Weight:
66840.355 Da
References
  1. Oshiro N, Pajor AM: Functional characterization of high-affinity Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter found in Xenopus laevis kidney and heart. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 Nov;289(5):C1159-68. Epub 2005 Jun 8. [15944208 ]
  2. Wolff NA, Burckhardt BC, Burckhardt G, Oellerich M, Armstrong VW: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its glucuronide metabolites interact with transport systems responsible for excretion of organic anions in the basolateral membrane of the human kidney. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Sep;22(9):2497-503. Epub 2007 May 25. [17526543 ]
  3. Hagos Y, Steffgen J, Rizwan AN, Langheit D, Knoll A, Burckhardt G, Burckhardt BC: Functional roles of cationic amino acid residues in the sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC-3) from winter flounder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Dec;291(6):F1224-31. Epub 2006 May 30. [16735460 ]
  4. Yodoya E, Wada M, Shimada A, Katsukawa H, Okada N, Yamamoto A, Ganapathy V, Fujita T: Functional and molecular identification of sodium-coupled dicarboxylate transporters in rat primary cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes and neurons. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(1):162-73. Epub 2006 Mar 8. [16524379 ]
  5. Burckhardt BC, Lorenz J, Kobbe C, Burckhardt G: Substrate specificity of the human renal sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter, hNaDC-3, under voltage-clamp conditions. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):F792-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23. [15561973 ]
  6. Burckhardt BC, Drinkuth B, Menzel C, Konig A, Steffgen J, Wright SH, Burckhardt G: The renal Na(+)-dependent dicarboxylate transporter, NaDC-3, translocates dimethyl- and disulfhydryl-compounds and contributes to renal heavy metal detoxification. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Nov;13(11):2628-38. [12397032 ]
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name:
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID:
P51649
Molecular Weight:
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Yogeeswari P, Sriram D, Vaigundaragavendran J: The GABA shunt: an attractive and potential therapeutic target in the treatment of epileptic disorders. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Apr;6(2):127-39. [15853764 ]
  2. Popov VN, Eprintsev AT, Fedorin DN, Fomenko OIu, Igamberdiev AU: [Role of transamination in the mobilization of respiratory substrates in germinating seeds of castor oil plants]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2007 May-Jun;43(3):376-81. [17619587 ]
  3. Wang C, Zhang HB, Wang LH, Zhang LH: Succinic semialdehyde couples stress response to quorum-sensing signal decay in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Oct;62(1):45-56. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [16942602 ]
  4. Ahn SJ, Yang CH, Cooksey DA: Pseudomonas putida 06909 genes expressed during colonization on mycelial surfaces and phenotypic characterization of mutants. J Appl Microbiol. 2007 Jul;103(1):120-32. [17584458 ]
  5. Chiribau CB, Mihasan M, Ganas P, Igloi GL, Artenie V, Brandsch R: Final steps in the catabolism of nicotine. FEBS J. 2006 Apr;273(7):1528-36. [16689938 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General Function:
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function:
NAD-dependent oxidoreductase with broad substrate specificity that shows both oxidative and reductive activity (in vitro). Has 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity towards various steroids (in vitro). Converts 5-alpha-androstan-3-alpha,17-beta-diol to androsterone and estradiol to estrone (in vitro). Has 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity towards androsterone (in vitro). Has retinol dehydrogenase activity towards all-trans-retinol (in vitro). Can convert androsterone to epi-androsterone. Androsterone is first oxidized to 5-alpha-androstane-3,17-dione and then reduced to epi-andosterone. Can act on both C-19 and C-21 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids.
Gene Name:
HSD17B6
Uniprot ID:
O14756
Molecular Weight:
35965.41 Da
References
  1. Goel HC, Gupta D, Gupta S, Garg AP, Bala M: Protection of mitochondrial system by Hippophae rhamnoides L. against radiation-induced oxidative damage in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;57(1):135-43. [15639001 ]
  2. Gupta D, Arora R, Garg AP, Bala M, Goel HC: Modification of radiation damage to mitochondrial system in vivo by Podophyllum hexandrum: mechanistic aspects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov;266(1-2):65-77. [15646028 ]
  3. Dudkina NV, Eubel H, Keegstra W, Boekema EJ, Braun HP: Structure of a mitochondrial supercomplex formed by respiratory-chain complexes I and III. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1;102(9):3225-9. Epub 2005 Feb 15. [15713802 ]
  4. Huang LS, Sun G, Cobessi D, Wang AC, Shen JT, Tung EY, Anderson VE, Berry EA: 3-nitropropionic acid is a suicide inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration that, upon oxidation by complex II, forms a covalent adduct with a catalytic base arginine in the active site of the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 3;281(9):5965-72. Epub 2005 Dec 21. [16371358 ]
  5. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. [16405730 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular Weight:
17042.82 Da
References
  1. Brink I, Schaefer O, Walz M, Neumann HP: Fluorine-18 DOPA PET imaging of paraganglioma syndrome. Clin Nucl Med. 2006 Jan;31(1):39-41. [16374125 ]
  2. Sun F, Huo X, Zhai Y, Wang A, Xu J, Su D, Bartlam M, Rao Z: Crystal structure of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex II. Cell. 2005 Jul 1;121(7):1043-57. [15989954 ]
  3. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. [16288654 ]
  4. Lehtonen HJ, Makinen MJ, Kiuru M, Laiho P, Herva R, van Minderhout I, Hogendoorn PC, Cornelisse C, Devilee P, Launonen V, Aaltonen LA: Increased HIF1 alpha in SDH and FH deficient tumors does not cause microsatellite instability. Int J Cancer. 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1386-9. [17520677 ]
  5. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. [16405730 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
SDHA
Uniprot ID:
P31040
Molecular Weight:
72690.975 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Maklashina E, Iverson TM, Sher Y, Kotlyar V, Andrell J, Mirza O, Hudson JM, Armstrong FA, Rothery RA, Weiner JH, Cecchini G: Fumarate reductase and succinate oxidase activity of Escherichia coli complex II homologs are perturbed differently by mutation of the flavin binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 21;281(16):11357-65. Epub 2006 Feb 15. [16484232 ]
  4. Takeo S, Kokaze A, Ng CS, Mizuchi D, Watanabe JI, Tanabe K, Kojima S, Kita K: Succinate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria: molecular characterization of the SDHA and SDHB genes for the catalytic subunits, the flavoprotein (Fp) and iron-sulfur (Ip) subunits. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000 Apr 15;107(2):191-205. [10779596 ]
  5. Ackrell BA: Cytopathies involving mitochondrial complex II. Mol Aspects Med. 2002 Oct;23(5):369-84. [12231007 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21912
Molecular Weight:
31629.365 Da
References
  1. Arikawa Y, Kuroyanagi T, Shimosaka M, Muratsubaki H, Enomoto K, Kodaira R, Okazaki M: Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng. 1999;87(1):28-36. [16232421 ]
  2. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. [16288654 ]
  3. Lehtonen HJ, Makinen MJ, Kiuru M, Laiho P, Herva R, van Minderhout I, Hogendoorn PC, Cornelisse C, Devilee P, Launonen V, Aaltonen LA: Increased HIF1 alpha in SDH and FH deficient tumors does not cause microsatellite instability. Int J Cancer. 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1386-9. [17520677 ]
  4. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. [16405730 ]
  5. Szeto SS, Reinke SN, Sykes BD, Lemire BD: Ubiquinone-binding site mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase generate superoxide and lead to the accumulation of succinate. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 14;282(37):27518-26. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [17636259 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular Weight:
18610.03 Da
References
  1. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. [16405730 ]
  2. Leibowitz G, Khaldi MZ, Shauer A, Parnes M, Oprescu AI, Cerasi E, Jonas JC, Kaiser N: Mitochondrial regulation of insulin production in rat pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1549-59. Epub 2005 Jun 29. [15986240 ]
  3. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. [16288654 ]
  4. Szeto SS, Reinke SN, Sykes BD, Lemire BD: Ubiquinone-binding site mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase generate superoxide and lead to the accumulation of succinate. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 14;282(37):27518-26. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [17636259 ]
  5. Kubo Y, Takagi H, Nakamori S: Effect of gene disruption of succinate dehydrogenase on succinate production in a sake yeast strain. J Biosci Bioeng. 2000;90(6):619-24. [16232921 ]
General Function:
Low-affinity sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Cotransport of sodium ions and dicarboxylates such as succinate and citrate.
Gene Name:
SLC13A2
Uniprot ID:
Q13183
Molecular Weight:
64409.495 Da
References
  1. Takahashi R, Ishihara H, Tamura A, Yamaguchi S, Yamada T, Takei D, Katagiri H, Endou H, Oka Y: Cell type-specific activation of metabolism reveals that beta-cell secretion suppresses glucagon release from alpha-cells in rat pancreatic islets. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Feb;290(2):E308-16. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [16188913 ]
  2. Hagos Y, Steffgen J, Rizwan AN, Langheit D, Knoll A, Burckhardt G, Burckhardt BC: Functional roles of cationic amino acid residues in the sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC-3) from winter flounder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Dec;291(6):F1224-31. Epub 2006 May 30. [16735460 ]
  3. Burckhardt BC, Lorenz J, Kobbe C, Burckhardt G: Substrate specificity of the human renal sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter, hNaDC-3, under voltage-clamp conditions. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):F792-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23. [15561973 ]
  4. Hall JA, Pajor AM: Functional characterization of a Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate carrier protein from Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2005 Aug;187(15):5189-94. [16030212 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Molecular Weight:
44714.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Yoshisue K, Yamamoto Y, Yoshida K, Saeki M, Minami Y, Esumi Y, Kawaguchi Y: Pharmacokinetics and biological fate of 3-(2,2, 2-trimethylhydrazinium)propionate dihydrate (MET-88), a novel cardioprotective agent, in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):687-94. [10820142 ]
General Function:
Sodium:sulfate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium/sulfate cotransporter that mediates sulfate reabsorption in the kidney.
Gene Name:
SLC13A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZW2
Molecular Weight:
66133.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Lee A, Beck L, Markovich D: The human renal sodium sulfate cotransporter (SLC13A1; hNaSi-1) cDNA and gene: organization, chromosomal localization, and functional characterization. Genomics. 2000 Dec 15;70(3):354-63. [11161786 ]
General Function:
Succinate-coa ligase (adp-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
SUCLA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2R7
Molecular Weight:
50316.88 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: specifically hydroxylates an Asp or Asn residue in certain epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domains of a number of proteins.Isoform 8: membrane-bound Ca(2+)-sensing protein, which is a structural component of the ER-plasma membrane junctions. Isoform 8 regulates the activity of Ca(+2) released-activated Ca(+2) (CRAC) channels in T-cells.
Gene Name:
ASPH
Uniprot ID:
Q12797
Molecular Weight:
85862.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Dicarboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in translocation of malonate, malate and succinate in exchange for phosphate, sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate across mitochondrial inner membrane.
Gene Name:
SLC25A10
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBX3
Molecular Weight:
31282.21 Da
References
  1. Ventura FV, Ruiter J, Ijlst L, de Almeida IT, Wanders RJ: Differential inhibitory effect of long-chain acyl-CoA esters on succinate and glutamate transport into rat liver mitochondria and its possible implications for long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Nov;86(3):344-52. Epub 2005 Sep 19. [16176879 ]
  2. Mizuarai S, Miki S, Araki H, Takahashi K, Kotani H: Identification of dicarboxylate carrier Slc25a10 as malate transporter in de novo fatty acid synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 16;280(37):32434-41. Epub 2005 Jul 15. [16027120 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD3
Uniprot ID:
O60568
Molecular Weight:
84784.505 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Basement membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V. May be involved in the secretory pathway of cells. Has growth suppressive activity in fibroblasts.
Gene Name:
P3H1
Uniprot ID:
Q32P28
Molecular Weight:
83393.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Shows prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types II, IV and V.
Gene Name:
P3H2
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVL5
Molecular Weight:
80983.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V.
Gene Name:
P3H3
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVL6
Molecular Weight:
81835.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Molecular Weight:
61048.775 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Molecular Weight:
60901.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Succinate-coa ligase (gdp-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
SUCLG2
Uniprot ID:
Q96I99
Molecular Weight:
46510.215 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
3-oxoacid coa-transferase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme for ketone body catabolism. Transfers the CoA moiety from succinate to acetoacetate. Formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate proceeds via an unstable anhydride species formed between the carboxylate groups of the enzyme and substrate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
OXCT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYC2
Molecular Weight:
56139.41 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name:
TMLHE
Uniprot ID:
Q9NVH6
Molecular Weight:
49517.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific proline found in each of the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domains (N-terminal, NODD, and C-terminal, CODD) of HIF1A. Also hydroxylates HIF2A. Has a preference for the CODD site for both HIF1A and HIF1B. Hydroxylated HIFs are then targeted for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation reaction is attenuated allowing HIFs to escape degradation resulting in their translocation to the nucleus, heterodimerization with HIF1B, and increased expression of hypoxy-inducible genes. EGLN1 is the most important isozyme under normoxia and, through regulating the stability of HIF1, involved in various hypoxia-influenced processes such as angiogenesis in retinal and cardiac functionality. Target proteins are preferentially recognized via a LXXLAP motif.
Gene Name:
EGLN1
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZT9
Molecular Weight:
46020.585 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5085.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26121
Dissociation>100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26121
References
  1. Leung IK, Flashman E, Yeoh KK, Schofield CJ, Claridge TD: Using NMR solvent water relaxation to investigate metalloenzyme-ligand binding interactions. J Med Chem. 2010 Jan 28;53(2):867-75. doi: 10.1021/jm901537q. [20025281 ]
General Function:
Peptidyl-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific proline found in each of the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domains (N-terminal, NODD, and C-terminal, CODD) of HIF1A. Also hydroxylates HIF2A. Has a preference for the CODD site for both HIF1A and HIF2A. Hydroxylated HIFs are then targeted for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation reaction is attenuated allowing HIFs to escape degradation resulting in their translocation to the nucleus, heterodimerization with HIF1B, and increased expression of hypoxy-inducible genes. EGLN2 is involved in regulating hypoxia tolerance and apoptosis in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Also regulates susceptibility to normoxic oxidative neuronal death. Links oxygen sensing to cell cycle and primary cilia formation by hydroxylating the critical centrosome component CEP192 which promotes its ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Hydroxylates IKBKB, mediating NF-kappaB activation in hypoxic conditions. Target proteins are preferentially recognized via a LXXLAP motif.
Gene Name:
EGLN2
Uniprot ID:
Q96KS0
Molecular Weight:
43650.03 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Peptidyl-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific proline found in each of the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domains (N-terminal, NODD, and C-terminal, CODD) of HIF1A. Also hydroxylates HIF2A. Has a preference for the CODD site for both HIF1A and HIF2A. Hydroxylation on the NODD site by EGLN3 appears to require prior hydroxylation on the CODD site. Hydroxylated HIFs are then targeted for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation reaction is attenuated allowing HIFs to escape degradation resulting in their translocation to the nucleus, heterodimerization with HIF1B, and increased expression of hypoxy-inducible genes. EGLN3 is the most important isozyme in limiting physiological activation of HIFs (particularly HIF2A) in hypoxia. Also hydroxylates PKM in hypoxia, limiting glycolysis. Under normoxia, hydroxylates and regulates the stability of ADRB2. Regulator of cardiomyocyte and neuronal apoptosis. In cardiomyocytes, inhibits the anti-apoptotic effect of BCL2 by disrupting the BAX-BCL2 complex. In neurons, has a NGF-induced proapoptotic effect, probably through regulating CASP3 activity. Also essential for hypoxic regulation of neutrophilic inflammation. Plays a crucial role in DNA damage response (DDR) by hydroxylating TELO2, promoting its interaction with ATR which is required for activation of the ATR/CHK1/p53 pathway. Target proteins are preferentially recognized via a LXXLAP motif.
Gene Name:
EGLN3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H6Z9
Molecular Weight:
27261.06 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Histone lysine demethylase with selectivity for the di- and monomethyl states that plays a key role cell cycle progression, rDNA transcription and brain development. Demethylates mono- and dimethylated histone H3 'Lys-9' residue (H3K9Me1 and H3K9Me2), dimethylated H3 'Lys-27' (H3K27Me2) and monomethylated histone H4 'Lys-20' residue (H4K20Me1). Acts as a transcription activator as H3K9Me1, H3K9Me2, H3K27Me2 and H4K20Me1 are epigenetic repressive marks. Involved in cell cycle progression by being required to control G1-S transition. Acts as a coactivator of rDNA transcription, by activating polymerase I (pol I) mediated transcription of rRNA genes. Required for brain development, probably by regulating expression of neuron-specific genes. Only has activity toward H4K20Me1 when nucleosome is used as a substrate and when not histone octamer is used as substrate. May also have weak activity toward dimethylated H3 'Lys-36' (H3K36Me2), however, the relevance of this result remains unsure in vivo. Specifically binds trimethylated 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me3), affecting histone demethylase specificity: has weak activity toward H3K9Me2 in absence of H3K4me3, while it has high activity toward H3K9me2 when binding H3K4me3.
Gene Name:
PHF8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UPP1
Molecular Weight:
117862.955 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-9' and 'Lys-36' residues of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Does not demethylate histone H3 'Lys-4', H3 'Lys-27' nor H4 'Lys-20'. Demethylates trimethylated H3 'Lys-9' and H3 'Lys-36' residue, while it has no activity on mono- and dimethylated residues. Demethylation of Lys residue generates formaldehyde and succinate. Participates in transcriptional repression of ASCL2 and E2F-responsive promoters via the recruitment of histone deacetylases and NCOR1, respectively.Isoform 2: Crucial for muscle differentiation, promotes transcriptional activation of the Myog gene by directing the removal of repressive chromatin marks at its promoter. Lacks the N-terminal demethylase domain.
Gene Name:
KDM4A
Uniprot ID:
O75164
Molecular Weight:
120661.265 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3, thereby playing a role in histone code. Does not demethylate histone H3 'Lys-4', H3 'Lys-27', H3 'Lys-36' nor H4 'Lys-20'. Only able to demethylate trimethylated H3 'Lys-9', with a weaker activity than KDM4A, KDM4C and KDM4D. Demethylation of Lys residue generates formaldehyde and succinate.
Gene Name:
KDM4B
Uniprot ID:
O94953
Molecular Weight:
121895.515 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-9' and 'Lys-36' residues of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Does not demethylate histone H3 'Lys-4', H3 'Lys-27' nor H4 'Lys-20'. Demethylates trimethylated H3 'Lys-9' and H3 'Lys-36' residue, while it has no activity on mono- and dimethylated residues. Demethylation of Lys residue generates formaldehyde and succinate.
Gene Name:
KDM4C
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3R0
Molecular Weight:
119980.795 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Does not demethylate histone H3 'Lys-4', H3 'Lys-27', H3 'Lys-36' nor H4 'Lys-20'. Demethylates both di- and trimethylated H3 'Lys-9' residue, while it has no activity on monomethylated residues. Demethylation of Lys residue generates formaldehyde and succinate.
Gene Name:
KDM4D
Uniprot ID:
Q6B0I6
Molecular Weight:
58602.32 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code.
Gene Name:
KDM4E
Uniprot ID:
B2RXH2
Molecular Weight:
56803.925 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50710 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26121
References
  1. Rose NR, Ng SS, Mecinovic J, Lienard BM, Bello SH, Sun Z, McDonough MA, Oppermann U, Schofield CJ: Inhibitor scaffolds for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone lysine demethylases. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7053-6. doi: 10.1021/jm800936s. [18942826 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Does not demethylate histone H3 'Lys-9', H3 'Lys-27', H3 'Lys-36', H3 'Lys-79' or H4 'Lys-20'. Demethylates trimethylated and dimethylated but not monomethylated H3 'Lys-4'. Participates in transcriptional repression of neuronal genes by recruiting histone deacetylases and REST at neuron-restrictive silencer elements. Represses the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer-mediated transcriptional activation of the core clock component PER2 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KDM5C
Uniprot ID:
P41229
Molecular Weight:
175718.565 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Lysine demethylase that demethylates both histones and non-histone proteins. Enzymatically inactive by itself, and becomes active following phosphorylation by PKA: forms a complex with ARID5B and mediates demethylation of methylated ARID5B. Demethylation of ARID5B leads to target the PHF2-ARID5B complex to target promoters, where PHF2 mediates demethylation of dimethylated 'Lys-9' of histone H3 (H3K9me2), followed by transcription activation of target genes. The PHF2-ARID5B complex acts as a coactivator of HNF4A in liver. PHF2 is recruited to trimethylated 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me3) at rDNA promoters and promotes expression of rDNA.
Gene Name:
PHF2
Uniprot ID:
O75151
Molecular Weight:
120773.925 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Dioxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of the modified genomic base 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and plays a key role in active DNA demethylation. Also mediates subsequent conversion of 5hmC into 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and conversion of 5fC to 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Conversion of 5mC into 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC probably constitutes the first step in cytosine demethylation. Methylation at the C5 position of cytosine bases is an epigenetic modification of the mammalian genome which plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. In addition to its role in DNA demethylation, plays a more general role in chromatin regulation. Preferentially binds to CpG-rich sequences at promoters of both transcriptionally active and Polycomb-repressed genes. Involved in the recruitment of the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT to CpG-rich transcription start sites of active genes, thereby promoting histone H2B GlcNAcylation by OGT. Also involved in transcription repression of a subset of genes through recruitment of transcriptional repressors to promoters. Involved in the balance between pluripotency and lineage commitment of cells it plays a role in embryonic stem cells maintenance and inner cell mass cell specification.
Gene Name:
TET1
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU7
Molecular Weight:
235306.965 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Dioxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of the modified genomic base 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and plays a key role in active DNA demethylation. Has a preference for 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in CpG motifs. Also mediates subsequent conversion of 5hmC into 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and conversion of 5fC to 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Conversion of 5mC into 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC probably constitutes the first step in cytosine demethylation. Methylation at the C5 position of cytosine bases is an epigenetic modification of the mammalian genome which plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. In addition to its role in DNA demethylation, also involved in the recruitment of the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT to CpG-rich transcription start sites of active genes, thereby promoting histone H2B GlcNAcylation by OGT.
Gene Name:
TET2
Uniprot ID:
Q6N021
Molecular Weight:
223809.995 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]
General Function:
Peptidase activity
Specific Function:
Cleaves the GlcNAc-Asn bond which joins oligosaccharides to the peptide of asparagine-linked glycoproteins.
Gene Name:
AGA
Uniprot ID:
P20933
Molecular Weight:
37207.955 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory5000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26121
References
  1. Risley JM, Huang DH, Kaylor JJ, Malik JJ, Xia YQ: Glycosylasparaginase inhibition studies: competitive inhibitors, transition state mimics, noncompetitive inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001;16(3):269-74. [11697047 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD1
Uniprot ID:
Q02809
Molecular Weight:
83549.55 Da
References
  1. Cudic M, Patel DA, Lauer-Fields JL, Brew K, Fields GB: Development of a convenient peptide-based assay for lysyl hydroxylase. Biopolymers. 2008;90(3):330-8. [17610258 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for succinate.
Gene Name:
SUCNR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXA5
Molecular Weight:
38697.395 Da
References
  1. Macaulay IC, Tijssen MR, Thijssen-Timmer DC, Gusnanto A, Steward M, Burns P, Langford CF, Ellis PD, Dudbridge F, Zwaginga JJ, Watkins NA, van der Schoot CE, Ouwehand WH: Comparative gene expression profiling of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes and erythroblasts identifies novel activatory and inhibitory platelet membrane proteins. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3260-9. Epub 2006 Dec 27. [17192395 ]
General Function:
Succinate-coa ligase (gdp-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the ATP- or GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA. The nature of the beta subunit determines the nucleotide specificity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLG1
Uniprot ID:
P53597
Molecular Weight:
36249.505 Da
References
  1. Ostergaard E, Christensen E, Kristensen E, Mogensen B, Duno M, Shoubridge EA, Wibrand F: Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate-coenzyme A ligase causes fatal infantile lactic acidosis with mitochondrial DNA depletion. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Aug;81(2):383-7. Epub 2007 Jun 4. [17668387 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme for ketone body catabolism. Transfers the CoA moiety from succinate to acetoacetate. Formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate proceeds via an unstable anhydride species formed between the carboxylate groups of the enzyme and substrate.
Gene Name:
OXCT1
Uniprot ID:
P55809
Molecular Weight:
56157.175 Da
References
  1. Coros AM, Swenson L, Wolodko WT, Fraser ME: Structure of the CoA transferase from pig heart to 1.7 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Oct;60(Pt 10):1717-25. Epub 2004 Sep 23. [15388917 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom each of oxygen into both donors
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates HIF1A at 'Pro-402' and 'Pro-564'. May function as a cellular oxygen sensor and, under normoxic conditions, may target HIF through the hydroxylation for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex.
Gene Name:
P4HTM
Uniprot ID:
Q9NXG6
Molecular Weight:
56660.535 Da
References
  1. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep 3;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [23999438 ]