Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:51:37 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:51 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4477
Identification
Common NameAtrazine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAtrazine is an organic compound consisting of an s-triazine-ring is a widely used herbicide. Its use is controversial due to widespread contamination in drinking water and its associations with birth defects and menstrual problems when consumed by humans at concentrations below government standards. Although it has been banned in the European Union, it is still one of the most widely used herbicides in the world . Atrazine is a suspected teratogen, causing demasculinization in male northern leopard frog even at low concentrations, and an estrogen disruptor. A 2010 study found that atrazine rendered 75 percent of male frogs sterile and turned one in 10 into females. A 2002 study found that exposure to atrazine caused male tadpoles to turn into hermaphrodites - frogs with both male and female sexual characteristics. But another study, requested by EPA and funded by Syngenta, was unable to reproduce these results. Atrazine was banned in the European Union (EU) in 2004 because of its persistent groundwater contamination. In the United States, however, atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides, with 76 million pounds of it applied each year, in spite of the restriction that used to be imposed. Its endocrine disruptor effects, possible carcinogenic effect, and epidemiological connection to low sperm levels in men has led several researchers to call for banning it in the US.Rates of biodegradation are affected by atrazine's low solubility, thus surfactants may increase the degradation rate. Though the two alkyl moieties readily support growth of certain microorganisms, the atrazine ring is a poor energy source due to the oxidized state of ring carbon. In fact, the most common pathway for atrazine degradation involves the intermediate, cyanuric acid, in which carbon is fully oxidized, thus the ring is primarily a nitrogen source for aerobic microorganisms. Atrazine may be catabolized as a carbon and nitrogen source in reducing environments, and some aerobic atrazine degraders have been shown to use the compound for growth under anoxia in the presence of nitrate as an electron acceptor, a process referred to as a denitrification. When atrazine is used as a nitrogen source for bacterial growth, degradation may be regulated by the presence of alternative sources of nitrogen. In pure cultures of atrazine-degrading bacteria, as well as active soil communitites, atrazine ring nitrogen, but not carbon are assimilated into microbial biomass. Low concentrations of glucose can decrease the bioavailability, whereas higher concentrations promote the catabolism of atrazine. Tyrone Hayes, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, notes that all of the studies that failed to conclude that atrazine caused hermaphroditism were plagued by poor experimental controls and were funded by Syngenta, one of the companies that produce the chemical. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its independent Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) examined all available studies on this topic including Hayes' work and concluded that there are 'currently insufficient data' to determine if atrazine affects amphibian development. Hayes, formerly part of the SAP panel, resigned in 2000 to continue studies independently. The EPA and its SAP made recommendations concerning proper study design needed for further investigation into this issue. As required by the EPA, Syngenta conducted two experiments under Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) and inspection by the EPA and German regulatory authorities. The paper concluded 'These studies demonstrate that long-term exposure of larval X. laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 microg/l does not affect growth, larval development, or sexual differentiation.' Another independent study in 2008 determined that 'the failure of recent studies to find that atrazine feminizes X. laevis calls into question the herbicide's role in that decline.' A report written in Environmental Science and Technology (May 15, 2008) cites the independent work of researchers in Japan, who were unable to replicate Hayes' work. 'The scientists found no hermaphrodite frogs; no increase in aromatase as measured by aromatase mRNA induction; and no increase in vitellogenin, another marker of feminization.'
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Herbicide
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Chloro-3-(ethylamino)-5-(isopropylamino)-2,4,6-triazine
1-Chloro-3-(ethylamino)-5-(isopropylamino)-S-triazine
2-Aethylamino-4-chlor-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazin
2-Chloro-4-(2-propylamino)-6-(ethylamino)-S-triazine
2-Chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-1,3,5-triazine
2-Chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-S-Triazine
2-Chloro-4-ethylamineisopropylamine-S-triazine
2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine
2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-Triazine
2-CHLORO-4-ISOPROPYLAMINO-6-ETHYLAMINO -1,3,5-TRIAZINE
2-CHLORO-4-ISOPROPYLAMINO-6-ETHYLAMINO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE
2-Ethylamino-4-isopropylamino-6-chloro-S-triazine
6-Chloro-4-(ethylamino)-2-(isopropylamino)-S-triazine
6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(propan-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
Aatram
Aatrex
Aatrex 4L
Aatrex 4LC
Aatrex 80W
Aatrex nine-O
Actinite PK
Akticon
Aktikon
Aktikon PK
Aktinit A
Aktinit PK
Argezin
Atazinax
Atraflow
Atraflow plus
Atranex
Atrasine
Atrataf
Atratol
Atratol A
Atrazin
Atrazine 4L
Atrazine 80W
Atred
Atrex
Attrex
ATZ
Azinotox 500
Candex
Cekuzina-T
Chromozin
Crisamina
Crisatrina
Crisazine
Cyazin
Farmco atrazine
Farmozine
Fenamin
Fenamine
Fenatrol
Fogard
Gesaprim
Gesaprim 50
Gesoprim
Griffex
Griffex 4L
Herbatoxol
Hungazin
Hungazin PK
Inakor
Laddock
Maizina
Mebazine
Oleogesaprim
Pitezin
Primatol
Primatol A
Primaze
Primoleo
Radazin
Radazin T
Radizin
Radizine
Strazine
Triazine A 1294
Vectal
Vectal SC
Weedex A
Wonuk
Zeaphos
Zeapos
Zeazin
Zeazine
Zeopos
Chemical FormulaC8H14ClN5
Average Molecular Mass215.683 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass215.094 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1912-24-9
IUPAC Name6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-(propan-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
Traditional Nameatrazine
SMILESCCN=C1NC(NC(Cl)=N1)=NC(C)C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C8H14ClN5/c1-4-10-7-12-6(9)13-8(14-7)11-5(2)3/h5H,4H2,1-3H3,(H2,10,11,12,13,14)
InChI KeyInChIKey=MXWJVTOOROXGIU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chloro-s-triazines. These are aromatic compounds containing a 1,3,5-triazine ring that is substituted at the 2-position with a chlorine atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTriazines
Sub Class1,3,5-triazines
Direct ParentChloro-s-triazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Chloro-s-triazine
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point173°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.0347 mg/mL at 26°C
LogP2.61
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.36 g/LALOGPS
logP1.69ALOGPS
logP2.2ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.48ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area62.73 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity62.22 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.58 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxr-6690000000-583f3e9640ef44c789ceView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-Q (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxu-9650000000-8ed90c24a7dac8c0763fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxr-6690000000-583f3e9640ef44c789ceView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-Q (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxu-9650000000-8ed90c24a7dac8c0763fView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0udi-4930000000-a800c662430d89a999bfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-1f8dc1708e21447c72a5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00xr-0950000000-698ba6253f9249ac28daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-f20aaabd2097e4fd3d64View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-007k-0900000000-5b2179fcabb41a9319e0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000t-0900000000-bb61e6f57dde5f72c357View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-b333a1dd57dddfe03e6fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-066208bd5cb9497fe53eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0190000000-dadd355493b3a581e39cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00xr-0960000000-1af13a0d4df29165659fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00di-2900000000-37f6b1aa187e630690dbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0g4j-6900000000-b43d1386f51d229ee0f4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0uxs-9700000000-2523140d0327bff497ffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-066208bd5cb9497fe53eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0190000000-ad3a817f71f2c0654dd8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00xr-1960000000-6cd3e48811e8b25a7c65View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00di-2900000000-99e6afb84401fc17d138View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0g4j-5900000000-d4992767b3b313839a0dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0uxs-9800000000-eed7a36ca3c28d5cead3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-e72e1e890a493331145dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0690000000-729ca7a9ad2de01cfe64View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1910000000-0146c181e5d03eb2b37eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0h37-9600000000-7de90ffbda7ec9663fbcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-3910000000-e195d0c31e12e3e7a831View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-06rj-7920000000-d4fc9069fd78b8033e88View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-7900000000-000a24131372a074e030View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0uxr-8890000000-b28a10166e9ef8427050View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (1)
Uses/SourcesThis is a man-made compound that is used as a pesticide.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB07392
HMDB IDHMDB41830
PubChem Compound ID2256
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL15063
ChemSpider ID2169
KEGG IDC06551
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID15930
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDATZ
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia Linkatrazine
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4477.pdf
General References
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.90 uMOT_ERa_EREGFP_0120Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Scippo ML, Argiris C, Van De Weerdt C, Muller M, Willemsen P, Martial J, Maghuin-Rogister G: Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Feb;378(3):664-9. Epub 2003 Oct 25. [14579009 ]
  2. Tran DQ, Kow KY, McLachlan JA, Arnold SF: The inhibition of estrogen receptor-mediated responses by chloro-S-triazine-derived compounds is dependent on estradiol concentration in yeast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Oct 3;227(1):140-6. [8858116 ]
  3. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Keratin-binding protein required for epithelial cell polarization. Involved in apical junction complex (AJC) assembly via its interaction with PARD3. Required for ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
FBF1
Uniprot ID:
Q8TES7
Molecular Weight:
125445.19 Da
References
  1. Purcell M, Neault JF, Malonga H, Arakawa H, Carpentier R, Tajmir-Riahi HA: Interactions of atrazine and 2,4-D with human serum albumin studied by gel and capillary electrophoresis, and FTIR spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Jul 9;1548(1):129-38. [11451446 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Transcriptional activator. Seems to be essential for sexual differentiation and formation of the primary steroidogenic tissues. Binds to the Ad4 site found in the promoter region of steroidogenic P450 genes such as CYP11A, CYP11B and CYP21B. Also regulates the AMH/Muellerian inhibiting substance gene as well as the AHCH and STAR genes. 5'-YCAAGGYC-3' and 5'-RRAGGTCA-3' are the consensus sequences for the recognition by NR5A1. The SFPQ-NONO-NR5A1 complex binds to the CYP17 promoter and regulates basal and cAMP-dependent transcriptional avtivity. Binds phosphatidylcholine (By similarity). Binds phospholipids with a phosphatidylinositol (PI) headgroup, in particular PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3. Activated by the phosphorylation of NR5A1 by HIPK3 leading to increased steroidogenic gene expression upon cAMP signaling pathway stimulation.
Gene Name:
NR5A1
Uniprot ID:
Q13285
Molecular Weight:
51635.47 Da
References
  1. Fan W, Yanase T, Morinaga H, Gondo S, Okabe T, Nomura M, Hayes TB, Takayanagi R, Nawata H: Herbicide atrazine activates SF-1 by direct affinity and concomitant co-activators recruitments to induce aromatase expression via promoter II. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 20;355(4):1012-8. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [17331471 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4A
Uniprot ID:
P27815
Molecular Weight:
98142.155 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.18 uMNVS_ENZ_hPDE4A1Novascreen
AC501.40 uMNVS_ENZ_hPDE4A1Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CCL2
Uniprot ID:
P13500
Molecular Weight:
11024.87 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_KF3CT_MCP1_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Chemotactic for monocytes and T-lymphocytes. Binds to CXCR3.
Gene Name:
CXCL10
Uniprot ID:
P02778
Molecular Weight:
10880.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_KF3CT_IP10_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Cleaves collagens of types I, II, and III at one site in the helical domain. Also cleaves collagens of types VII and X. In case of HIV infection, interacts and cleaves the secreted viral Tat protein, leading to a decrease in neuronal Tat's mediated neurotoxicity.
Gene Name:
MMP1
Uniprot ID:
P03956
Molecular Weight:
54006.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_hDFCGF_MMP1_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Impairs regulatory T-cells (Treg) function in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis via FOXP3 dephosphorylation. Upregulates the expression of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which dephosphorylates the key 'Ser-418' residue of FOXP3, thereby inactivating FOXP3 and rendering Treg cells functionally defective (PubMed:23396208). Key mediator of cell death in the anticancer action of BCG-stimulated neutrophils in combination with DIABLO/SMAC mimetic in the RT4v6 bladder cancer cell line (PubMed:22517918).The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells.
Gene Name:
TNF
Uniprot ID:
P01375
Molecular Weight:
25644.15 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_LPS_TNFa_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.85 uMNVS_NR_hPXRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.98 uMCLZD_CYP1A2_6CellzDirect
AC509.95 uMCLZD_CYP1A2_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Cytokine activity
Specific Function:
Produced by activated macrophages, IL-1 stimulates thymocyte proliferation by inducing IL-2 release, B-cell maturation and proliferation, and fibroblast growth factor activity. IL-1 proteins are involved in the inflammatory response, being identified as endogenous pyrogens, and are reported to stimulate the release of prostaglandin and collagenase from synovial cells.
Gene Name:
IL1A
Uniprot ID:
P01583
Molecular Weight:
30606.29 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_BE3C_IL1a_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.67 uMCLZD_CYP2C9_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.99 uMCLZD_CYP1A1_6CellzDirect
AC508.62 uMCLZD_CYP1A1_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.01 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
AC508.94 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular Weight:
59590.91 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.80 uMCLZD_UGT1A1_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]