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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-30 21:03:50 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4555
Identification
Common NamePseudoephedrine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAn alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists. [PubChem]
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+)-(1S,2S)-Pseudoephedrine
(+)-Pseudoephedrine
(+)-Psi-ephedrine
(+)-threo-Ephedrine
Afrinol
Benylin Decongestant
Cenafed
D-Isoephedrine
D-Pseudoephedrine
D-Psi-2-methylamino-1-phenyl-1-propanol
D-Psi-ephedrine
Decofed
Dimetapp Decongestant
Eltor 120
Genaphed
Isoephedrine
L(+)-Psi-ephedrine
L-(+)-Pseudoephedrine
Maxenal
Myfedrine
Novafed
Pseudoefedrina
Pseudoephedrinum
Psi-ephedrin
Psi-ephedrine
Robidrine
Sudafed Decongestant
trans-Ephedrine
Chemical FormulaC10H15NO
Average Molecular Mass165.232 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass165.115 g/mol
CAS Registry Number90-82-4
IUPAC Name(1S,2S)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol
Traditional Namepseudoephedrine
SMILES[H][C@@](C)(NC)[C@@]([H])(O)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H15NO/c1-8(11-2)10(12)9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-8,10-12H,1-2H3/t8-,10+/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=KWGRBVOPPLSCSI-WCBMZHEXSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropanes. These are organic compounds containing a phenylpropane moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylpropanes
Direct ParentPhenylpropanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Secondary amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point119 °C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility7 mg/L
LogP0.89
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility8.26 g/LALOGPS
logP1ALOGPS
logP1.32ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.26 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.69 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.83 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-0c3fe6959703a851b9ccJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05cr-4900000000-d9ac11e33b32a9e427adJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-016s-3900000000-868bf4bba93d8b4be696JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0159-2900000000-6c55fc67b7576cb42a8aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0006-9700000000-459686cbaf7d3b59c202JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00kb-0900000000-677d622716b4c2545f16JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00kb-2900000000-416def0e527ddf116a39JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0aou-9500000000-155625a572f19610e138JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-ea7e1b550b5dc0d6d41dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03dj-2900000000-f4de25860574bb60daf1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9600000000-62e375458e5f83795e90JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-8f0484f72b48017f1f2eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposurePseudoephedrine is readily and almost completely absorbed from the GI tract and there is no evidence of first-pass metabolism.
Mechanism of ToxicityPseudoephedrine acts directly on both alpha- and, to a lesser degree, beta-adrenergic receptors. Through direct action on alpha-adrenergic receptors in the mucosa of the respiratory tract, pseudoephedrine produces vasoconstriction. Pseudoephedrine relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by stimulating beta2-adrenergic receptors. Like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine releasing norepinephrine from its storage sites, an indirect effect. This is its main and direct mechanism of action. The displaced noradrenaline is released into the neuronal synapse where it is free to activate the postsynaptic adrenergic receptors.
MetabolismHepatic. Half Life: 9-16 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of nasal congestion, sinus congestion, Eustachian tube congestion, and vasomotor rhinitis, and as an adjunct to other agents in the optimum treatment of allergic rhinitis, croup, sinusitis, otitis media, and tracheobronchitis. Also used as first-line therapy of priapism.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsCommon adverse reactions include nervousness, restlessness, and insomnia. Rare adverse reactions include difficult/painful urination, dizziness/lightheadedness, heart palpitations, headache, increased sweating, nausea/vomiting, trembling, troubled breathing, unusual paleness, and weakness.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00852
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7028
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1590
ChemSpider ID6761
KEGG IDC02765
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID51209
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPseudoephedrine
References
Synthesis Reference

Andrew G. Myers, “Synthesis of l-azatyrosine using pseudoephedrine as a chiral auxiliary.” U.S. Patent US5760237, issued June, 1991.

MSDST3D4555.pdf
General ReferencesNot Available
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Wellington K, Jarvis B: Cetirizine/pseudoephedrine. Drugs. 2001;61(15):2231-40; discussion 2241-2. [11772135 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Vansal SS, Feller DR: Direct effects of ephedrine isomers on human beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 1;58(5):807-10. [10449190 ]
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Wee S, Ordway GA, Woolverton WL: Reinforcing effect of pseudoephedrine isomers and the mechanism of action. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jun 16;493(1-3):117-25. [15189772 ]
  2. Foley KF, Van Dort ME, Sievert MK, Ruoho AE, Cozzi NV: Stereospecific inhibition of monoamine uptake transporters by meta-hydroxyephedrine isomers. J Neural Transm. 2002 Oct;109(10):1229-40. [12373557 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Wee S, Ordway GA, Woolverton WL: Reinforcing effect of pseudoephedrine isomers and the mechanism of action. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jun 16;493(1-3):117-25. [15189772 ]
  2. Foley KF, Van Dort ME, Sievert MK, Ruoho AE, Cozzi NV: Stereospecific inhibition of monoamine uptake transporters by meta-hydroxyephedrine isomers. J Neural Transm. 2002 Oct;109(10):1229-40. [12373557 ]
General Function:
Tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Impairs regulatory T-cells (Treg) function in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis via FOXP3 dephosphorylation. Upregulates the expression of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which dephosphorylates the key 'Ser-418' residue of FOXP3, thereby inactivating FOXP3 and rendering Treg cells functionally defective (PubMed:23396208). Key mediator of cell death in the anticancer action of BCG-stimulated neutrophils in combination with DIABLO/SMAC mimetic in the RT4v6 bladder cancer cell line (PubMed:22517918).The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells.
Gene Name:
TNF
Uniprot ID:
P01375
Molecular Weight:
25644.15 Da
References
  1. Wu Z, Kong X, Zhang T, Ye J, Fang Z, Yang X: Pseudoephedrine/ephedrine shows potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-alpha-mediated acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Feb 5;724:112-21. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.11.032. Epub 2013 Dec 21. [24365491 ]
  2. Fiebich BL, Collado JA, Stratz C, Valina C, Hochholzer W, Munoz E, Bellido LM: Pseudoephedrine inhibits T-cell activation by targeting NF-kappaB, NFAT and AP-1 signaling pathways. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Feb;34(1):98-106. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2011.582118. Epub 2011 Jun 2. [21631396 ]
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Vansal SS, Feller DR: Direct effects of ephedrine isomers on human beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 1;58(5):807-10. [10449190 ]
General Function:
Kinase activator activity
Specific Function:
Produced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, this protein is required for T-cell proliferation and other activities crucial to regulation of the immune response. Can stimulate B-cells, monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, and glioma cells.
Gene Name:
IL2
Uniprot ID:
P60568
Molecular Weight:
17627.52 Da
References
  1. Fiebich BL, Collado JA, Stratz C, Valina C, Hochholzer W, Munoz E, Bellido LM: Pseudoephedrine inhibits T-cell activation by targeting NF-kappaB, NFAT and AP-1 signaling pathways. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Feb;34(1):98-106. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2011.582118. Epub 2011 Jun 2. [21631396 ]
9. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells
References
  1. Fiebich BL, Collado JA, Stratz C, Valina C, Hochholzer W, Munoz E, Bellido LM: Pseudoephedrine inhibits T-cell activation by targeting NF-kappaB, NFAT and AP-1 signaling pathways. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Feb;34(1):98-106. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2011.582118. Epub 2011 Jun 2. [21631396 ]
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii distal enhancer sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T-cells, especially in the induction of the IL-2 or IL-4 gene transcription. Also controls gene expression in embryonic cardiac cells. Could regulate not only the activation and proliferation but also the differentiation and programmed death of T-lymphocytes as well as lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells.
Gene Name:
NFATC1
Uniprot ID:
O95644
Molecular Weight:
101241.73 Da
References
  1. Fiebich BL, Collado JA, Stratz C, Valina C, Hochholzer W, Munoz E, Bellido LM: Pseudoephedrine inhibits T-cell activation by targeting NF-kappaB, NFAT and AP-1 signaling pathways. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Feb;34(1):98-106. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2011.582118. Epub 2011 Jun 2. [21631396 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Wee S, Ordway GA, Woolverton WL: Reinforcing effect of pseudoephedrine isomers and the mechanism of action. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jun 16;493(1-3):117-25. [15189772 ]
12. activator protein 1 (Protein Group)
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
This protein binds the cAMP response element (CRE) (consensus: 5'-GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3'), a sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. Binds to the Tax-responsive element (TRE) of HTLV-I. Mediates PKA-induced stimulation of CRE-reporter genes. Represses the expression of FTH1 and other antioxidant detoxification genes. Triggers cell proliferation and transformation.
Included Proteins:
P18846 , P15336 , P18847 , P18848 , Q9Y2D1 , P18850 , P17544 , Q8WYK2 , P01100 , P05412
References
  1. Fiebich BL, Collado JA, Stratz C, Valina C, Hochholzer W, Munoz E, Bellido LM: Pseudoephedrine inhibits T-cell activation by targeting NF-kappaB, NFAT and AP-1 signaling pathways. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Feb;34(1):98-106. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2011.582118. Epub 2011 Jun 2. [21631396 ]