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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-05 17:11:48 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:53 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4592
Identification
Common NameButyric acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionButyric acid, a four-carbon fatty acid, is formed in the human colon by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (including dietary fiber), and putatively suppresses colorectal cancer (CRC). Butyrate has diverse and apparently paradoxical effects on cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation that may be either pro-neoplastic or anti-neoplastic, depending upon factors such as the level of exposure, availability of other metabolic substrate and the intracellular milieu. In humans, the relationship between luminal butyrate exposure and CRC has been examined only indirectly in case-control studies, by measuring fecal butyrate concentrations, although this may not accurately reflect effective butyrate exposure during carcinogenesis. Perhaps not surprisingly, results of these investigations have been mutually contradictory. The direct effect of butyrate on tumorigenesis has been assessed in a no. of in vivo animal models, which have also yielded conflicting results. In part, this may be explained by methodology: differences in the amount and route of butyrate administration, which are likely to significantly influence delivery of butyrate to the distal colon. (19) Butyric acid is a carboxylic acid found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). Butyric acid is a fatty acid occurring in the form of esters in animal fats and plant oils. Interestingly, low-molecular-weight esters of butyric acid, such as methyl butyrate, have mostly pleasant aromas or tastes. As a consequence, they find use as food and perfume additives. Butyrate is produced as end-product of a fermentation process solely performed by obligate anaerobic bacteria.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Butanoate
1-Butanoic acid
1-Butyrate
1-Butyric acid
1-Propanecarboxylate
1-Propanecarboxylic acid
Butanate
Butanic acid
Butanoate
Butanoic acid
Buttersaeure
Butyrate
Ethylacetate
Ethylacetic acid
Honey robber
Kyselina maselna
N-Butanoate
N-Butanoic acid
N-Butyrate
N-Butyric acid
Propanecarboxylate
Propanecarboxylic acid
Propylformate
Propylformic acid
Chemical FormulaC4H8O2
Average Molecular Mass88.105 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass88.052 g/mol
CAS Registry Number107-92-6
IUPAC Namebutanoic acid
Traditional Namebutyric acid
SMILESCCCC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C4H8O2/c1-2-3-4(5)6/h2-3H2,1H3,(H,5,6)
InChI KeyInChIKey=FERIUCNNQQJTOY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as straight chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with a straight aliphatic chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentStraight chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Large Intestine
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-5.7°C
Boiling Point163.7°C
Solubility6E+004 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP0.79
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility239 g/LALOGPS
logP0.78ALOGPS
logP0.92ChemAxon
logS0.43ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity21.87 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.22 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03dl-9000000000-6dc57ea0c6b21d3f8aa1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03dl-9000000000-032fc35b394786b5896aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03dl-9000000000-6dc57ea0c6b21d3f8aa1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03dl-9000000000-032fc35b394786b5896aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002f-9000000000-a7792b54320e7c859731JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fr-9100000000-d125b331c4a6d37648a1JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-7f461db56bfd8568ec71JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-66f857fa612f773837bcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-e6689b2e6bf21570b934JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-b2ffa7d67b2466dea94fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-7467bf19c64fd3f51105JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-9ae015043b014b3c93d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-e30b3c6bd6218b9b49e1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-efbb0e35a19a1713240bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-9ae015043b014b3c93d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-e30b3c6bd6218b9b49e1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-efbb0e35a19a1713240bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-acb5cf0017a9ee680dd8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-812e24462a71dccb0fecJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-f9d30338ca1ee9409964JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-9d749b6b6cf2f93a8f85JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00ku-9000000000-ee742730266fb4997777JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-88fc445cddcb726e93d8JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-9000000000-5338ff8a9c4e59150abaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityButyric acid is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismParaoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of OP exposure.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsSymptoms of low dose exposure include excessive salivation and eye-watering. Acute dose symptoms include severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Hypertension, hypoglycemia, anxiety, headache, tremor and ataxia may also result.
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03568
HMDB IDHMDB00039
PubChem Compound ID264
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL14227
ChemSpider ID259
KEGG IDC00246
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID30772
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDBUA
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkButyric acid
References
Synthesis Reference

Haruhiko Kikuchi, “Process for preparing 4-(4-biphenylyl)-4-oxo-butanoic acid.” U.S. Patent US4621154, issued November, 1977.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. McMillan L, Butcher SK, Pongracz J, Lord JM: Opposing effects of butyrate and bile acids on apoptosis of human colon adenoma cells: differential activation of PKC and MAP kinases. Br J Cancer. 2003 Mar 10;88(5):748-53. [12618885 ]
  2. Bauer G: Induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigens by corticosteroids: inhibition by TPA and retinoic acid. Int J Cancer. 1983 Mar 15;31(3):291-5. [6826253 ]
  3. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  4. McIntosh GH, Noakes M, Royle PJ, Foster PR: Whole-grain rye and wheat foods and markers of bowel health in overweight middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Apr;77(4):967-74. [12663299 ]
  5. Schwiertz A, Lehmann U, Jacobasch G, Blaut M: Influence of resistant starch on the SCFA production and cell counts of butyrate-producing Eubacterium spp. in the human intestine. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;93(1):157-62. [12067385 ]
  6. Bauer G, Hofler P, Simon M: Epstein-Barr virus induction by a serum factor. Characterization of the purified factor and the mechanism of its activation. J Biol Chem. 1982 Oct 10;257(19):11411-5. [6288683 ]
  7. Jin SE, Ban E, Kim YB, Kim CK: Development of HPLC method for the determination of levosulpiride in human plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004 Jun 29;35(4):929-36. [15193738 ]
  8. Welters CF, Heineman E, Thunnissen FB, van den Bogaard AE, Soeters PB, Baeten CG: Effect of dietary inulin supplementation on inflammation of pouch mucosa in patients with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002 May;45(5):621-7. [12004211 ]
  9. Kurita-Ochiai T, Seto S, Ochiai K: Role of cell-cell communication in inhibiting butyric acid-induced T-cell apoptosis. Infect Immun. 2004 Oct;72(10):5947-54. [15385498 ]
  10. Cruz HG, Ivanova T, Lunn ML, Stoffel M, Slesinger PA, Luscher C: Bi-directional effects of GABA(B) receptor agonists on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Feb;7(2):153-9. Epub 2004 Jan 25. [14745451 ]
  11. Yonemura K, Sairenji T, Hinuma Y: Inhibitory effect of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylthymine on synthesis of Epstein-Barr virus. Microbiol Immunol. 1981;25(6):557-63. [6268944 ]
  12. Teichert J, Tuemmers T, Achenbach H, Preiss C, Hermann R, Ruus P, Preiss R: Pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in subjects with severe kidney damage and end-stage renal disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;45(3):313-28. [15703366 ]
  13. Rephaeli A, Blank-Porat D, Tarasenko N, Entin-Meer M, Levovich I, Cutts SM, Phillips DR, Malik Z, Nudelman A: In vivo and in vitro antitumor activity of butyroyloxymethyl-diethyl phosphate (AN-7), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in human prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2005 Aug 20;116(2):226-35. [15800932 ]
  14. Kurita-Ochiai T, Ochiai K, Suzuki N, Otsuka K, Fukushima K: Human gingival fibroblasts rescue butyric acid-induced T-cell apoptosis. Infect Immun. 2002 May;70(5):2361-7. [11953371 ]
  15. Jacobasch G, Jacobasch KH: [Molecular etiology of colorectal carcinogenesis, clinical manifestations and therapy]. Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich. 1997 Mar;91(2):125-33. [9244653 ]
  16. Velazquez OC, Lederer HM, Rombeau JL: Butyrate and the colonocyte. Production, absorption, metabolism, and therapeutic implications. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;427:123-34. [9361838 ]
  17. Kawanishi M, Ito Y: Effect of short-chain fatty acids on Epstein-Barr virus early and viral capsid antigen induction in P3HR-1 cells. Cancer Lett. 1980 Dec;11(2):129-32. [6257378 ]
  18. Stein TP, Koerner B, Schluter MD, Leskiw MJ, Gaprindachvilli T, Richards EW, Cope FO, Condolucci D: Weight loss, the gut and the inflammatory response in aids patients. Cytokine. 1997 Feb;9(2):143-7. [9071566 ]
  19. Sengupta S, Muir JG, Gibson PR: Does butyrate protect from colorectal cancer? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jan;21(1 Pt 2):209-18. [16460475 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Deacetylates SP proteins, SP1 and SP3, and regulates their function. Component of the BRG1-RB1-HDAC1 complex, which negatively regulates the CREST-mediated transcription in resting neurons. Upon calcium stimulation, HDAC1 is released from the complex and CREBBP is recruited, which facilitates transcriptional activation. Deacetylates TSHZ3 and regulates its transcriptional repressor activity. Deacetylates 'Lys-310' in RELA and thereby inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B. Deacetylates NR1D2 and abrogates the effect of KAT5-mediated relieving of NR1D2 transcription repression activity. Component of a RCOR/GFI/KDM1A/HDAC complex that suppresses, via histone deacetylase (HDAC) recruitment, a number of genes implicated in multilineage blood cell development. Involved in CIART-mediated transcriptional repression of the circadian transcriptional activator: CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer. Required for the transcriptional repression of circadian target genes, such as PER1, mediated by the large PER complex or CRY1 through histone deacetylation.
Gene Name:
HDAC1
Uniprot ID:
Q13547
Molecular Weight:
55102.615 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5016 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Fass DM, Shah R, Ghosh B, Hennig K, Norton S, Zhao WN, Reis SA, Klein PS, Mazitschek R, Maglathlin RL, Lewis TA, Haggarty SJ: Effect of Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase with Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids and Their Hydroxamic Acid Analogs on Vertebrate Development and Neuronal Chromatin. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 8;2(1):39-42. [21874153 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with MAD, SIN3, YY1 and N-COR. Interacts in the late S-phase of DNA-replication with DNMT1 in the other transcriptional repressor complex composed of DNMT1, DMAP1, PCNA, CAF1. Deacetylates TSHZ3 and regulates its transcriptional repressor activity. Component of a RCOR/GFI/KDM1A/HDAC complex that suppresses, via histone deacetylase (HDAC) recruitment, a number of genes implicated in multilineage blood cell development. May be involved in the transcriptional repression of circadian target genes, such as PER1, mediated by CRY1 through histone deacetylation. Involved in MTA1-mediated transcriptional corepression of TFF1 and CDKN1A.
Gene Name:
HDAC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92769
Molecular Weight:
55363.855 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5012 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Fass DM, Shah R, Ghosh B, Hennig K, Norton S, Zhao WN, Reis SA, Klein PS, Mazitschek R, Maglathlin RL, Lewis TA, Haggarty SJ: Effect of Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase with Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids and Their Hydroxamic Acid Analogs on Vertebrate Development and Neuronal Chromatin. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 8;2(1):39-42. [21874153 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), and some other non-histone substrates. Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Participates in the BCL6 transcriptional repressor activity by deacetylating the H3 'Lys-27' (H3K27) on enhancer elements, antagonizing EP300 acetyltransferase activity and repressing proximal gene expression. Probably participates in the regulation of transcription through its binding to the zinc-finger transcription factor YY1; increases YY1 repression activity. Required to repress transcription of the POU1F1 transcription factor. Acts as a molecular chaperone for shuttling phosphorylated NR2C1 to PML bodies for sumoylation (PubMed:21444723, PubMed:23911289). Contributes, together with XBP1 isoform 1, to the activation of NFE2L2-mediated HMOX1 transcription factor gene expression in a PI(3)K/mTORC2/Akt-dependent signaling pathway leading to endothelial cell (EC) survival under disturbed flow/oxidative stress (PubMed:25190803).
Gene Name:
HDAC3
Uniprot ID:
O15379
Molecular Weight:
48847.385 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC509 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Fass DM, Shah R, Ghosh B, Hennig K, Norton S, Zhao WN, Reis SA, Klein PS, Mazitschek R, Maglathlin RL, Lewis TA, Haggarty SJ: Effect of Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase with Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids and Their Hydroxamic Acid Analogs on Vertebrate Development and Neuronal Chromatin. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 8;2(1):39-42. [21874153 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Involved in muscle maturation via its interaction with the myocyte enhancer factors such as MEF2A, MEF2C and MEF2D. Involved in the MTA1-mediated epigenetic regulation of ESR1 expression in breast cancer.
Gene Name:
HDAC4
Uniprot ID:
P56524
Molecular Weight:
119038.875 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>2000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Fass DM, Shah R, Ghosh B, Hennig K, Norton S, Zhao WN, Reis SA, Klein PS, Mazitschek R, Maglathlin RL, Lewis TA, Haggarty SJ: Effect of Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase with Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids and Their Hydroxamic Acid Analogs on Vertebrate Development and Neuronal Chromatin. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 8;2(1):39-42. [21874153 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Involved in muscle maturation by repressing transcription of myocyte enhancer MEF2C. During muscle differentiation, it shuttles into the cytoplasm, allowing the expression of myocyte enhancer factors. Involved in the MTA1-mediated epigenetic regulation of ESR1 expression in breast cancer.
Gene Name:
HDAC5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQL6
Molecular Weight:
121976.855 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>2000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Fass DM, Shah R, Ghosh B, Hennig K, Norton S, Zhao WN, Reis SA, Klein PS, Mazitschek R, Maglathlin RL, Lewis TA, Haggarty SJ: Effect of Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase with Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids and Their Hydroxamic Acid Analogs on Vertebrate Development and Neuronal Chromatin. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 8;2(1):39-42. [21874153 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes (By similarity). Plays a central role in microtubule-dependent cell motility via deacetylation of tubulin. Involved in the MTA1-mediated epigenetic regulation of ESR1 expression in breast cancer.In addition to its protein deacetylase activity, plays a key role in the degradation of misfolded proteins: when misfolded proteins are too abundant to be degraded by the chaperone refolding system and the ubiquitin-proteasome, mediates the transport of misfolded proteins to a cytoplasmic juxtanuclear structure called aggresome. Probably acts as an adapter that recognizes polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins and target them to the aggresome, facilitating their clearance by autophagy.
Gene Name:
HDAC6
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBN7
Molecular Weight:
131418.19 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>2000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Fass DM, Shah R, Ghosh B, Hennig K, Norton S, Zhao WN, Reis SA, Klein PS, Mazitschek R, Maglathlin RL, Lewis TA, Haggarty SJ: Effect of Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase with Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids and Their Hydroxamic Acid Analogs on Vertebrate Development and Neuronal Chromatin. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 8;2(1):39-42. [21874153 ]
General Function:
Transcription corepressor activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. Involved in muscle maturation by repressing transcription of myocyte enhancer factors such as MEF2A, MEF2B and MEF2C. During muscle differentiation, it shuttles into the cytoplasm, allowing the expression of myocyte enhancer factors (By similarity). May be involved in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency, possibly by repressing the viral BZLF1 gene. Positively regulates the transcriptional repressor activity of FOXP3 (PubMed:17360565).
Gene Name:
HDAC7
Uniprot ID:
Q8WUI4
Molecular Weight:
102926.225 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>2000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Fass DM, Shah R, Ghosh B, Hennig K, Norton S, Zhao WN, Reis SA, Klein PS, Mazitschek R, Maglathlin RL, Lewis TA, Haggarty SJ: Effect of Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase with Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids and Their Hydroxamic Acid Analogs on Vertebrate Development and Neuronal Chromatin. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 8;2(1):39-42. [21874153 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Represses MEF2-dependent transcription.Isoform 3 lacks active site residues and therefore is catalytically inactive. Represses MEF2-dependent transcription by recruiting HDAC1 and/or HDAC3. Seems to inhibit skeletal myogenesis and to be involved in heart development. Protects neurons from apoptosis, both by inhibiting JUN phosphorylation by MAPK10 and by repressing JUN transcription via HDAC1 recruitment to JUN promoter.
Gene Name:
HDAC9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKV0
Molecular Weight:
111296.29 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>2000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Fass DM, Shah R, Ghosh B, Hennig K, Norton S, Zhao WN, Reis SA, Klein PS, Mazitschek R, Maglathlin RL, Lewis TA, Haggarty SJ: Effect of Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase with Short-Chain Carboxylic Acids and Their Hydroxamic Acid Analogs on Vertebrate Development and Neuronal Chromatin. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 8;2(1):39-42. [21874153 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code.
Gene Name:
KDM4E
Uniprot ID:
B2RXH2
Molecular Weight:
56803.925 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>10000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 26109
References
  1. Rose NR, Ng SS, Mecinovic J, Lienard BM, Bello SH, Sun Z, McDonough MA, Oppermann U, Schofield CJ: Inhibitor scaffolds for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone lysine demethylases. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7053-6. doi: 10.1021/jm800936s. [18942826 ]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da