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Record Information
Creation Date2014-09-05 17:12:02 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:53 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4595
Common NameCaproic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionIt is a colorless oily liquid smelling of cheese. It is a fatty acid found naturally in various animal fats and oils. Caproic acid is a medium chain triglycerides (MCT). MCTs are widely used for parenteral nutrition in individuals requiring supplemental nutrition and are being more widely used in foods, drugs and cosmetics; they are essentially non-toxic. It is safe for human dietary consumption up to levels of 1g/kg. (10).
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Cosmetic Toxin
  • Food Additive
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
1-Hexanoic acid
1-Pentanecarboxylic acid
Butylacetic acid
Capronic acid
Hexanoic acid
Hexoic acid
Hexylic acid
N-Caproic acid
N-Hexanoic acid
N-Hexoic acid
N-Hexylic acid
Pentylformic acid
Chemical FormulaC6H12O2
Average Molecular Mass116.158 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass116.084 g/mol
CAS Registry Number142-62-1
IUPAC Namehexanoic acid
Traditional Namehexanoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H12O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6(7)8/h2-5H2,1H3,(H,7,8)
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMedium-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility10.3 mg/mL
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility9.72 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.07 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.27 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00yi-3900000000-8d7942410dfae70c7c9dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-9000000000-f4bf00b677d90d54ba69JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00yi-3900000000-8d7942410dfae70c7c9dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-9ee618fa3c0bd9d56748JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fr-9200000000-be939d8c0455d1af93a6JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-ba8c7078846c268d61a6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03di-0900000000-151d5971be58b6799d2eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-02t9-1900000000-36096ef7dfebaa193910JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-f4bf00b677d90d54ba69JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-f5b00c5e9d90d801ab16JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-5013166dd3b692762812JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-014i-5900000000-52b3e7f8b01498621772JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-e3af905666760ff49069JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-f5b00c5e9d90d801ab16JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-5013166dd3b692762812JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-5900000000-52b3e7f8b01498621772JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-e3af905666760ff49069JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-01b9-6900000000-763e9a8e0f15e13fae3cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014j-9700000000-5489131065e0934751a7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05fs-9100000000-68f7c2883fb339578aceJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-8e5e925d60baa2f176c2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-e877f22e42e8323f59e3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01b9-9800000000-b5d583466919719819a1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-791ecce51d7cdde8f0f5JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-9000000000-fe3fab44832ddab1082eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID8892
ChemSpider ID8552
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30776
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCaproic acid
Synthesis ReferenceGao, Fei; Wu, Zongwei. Process for preparation of hexanoic acid by oxidation of 2-octanol with nitric acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 7pp.
General References
  1. Epps JM, Phillips JO, Mestecky J: IgA-mediated clearance and tissue deposition of dinitrophenylated human serum albumin at various DNP:HSA ratios. Mol Immunol. 1988 Aug;25(8):731-8. [3185569 ]
  2. Varani J, Orr W, Ward PA: Cell-associated proteases affect tumour cell migration in vitro. J Cell Sci. 1979 Apr;36:241-52. [457809 ]
  3. Schoots AC, Mikkers FE, Cramers CA, Ringoir S: Profiling of uremic serum by high-resolution gas chromatography-electron-impact, chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr. 1979 Sep 11;164(1):1-8. [541389 ]
  4. Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL: Hydroxy acid metabolites of branched-chain amino acids in amniotic fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 1984 Jul 16;140(2):157-66. [6467607 ]
  5. Nilsen SL, Castellino FJ: Expression of human plasminogen in Drosophila Schneider S2 cells. Protein Expr Purif. 1999 Jun;16(1):136-43. [10336871 ]
  6. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [12829005 ]
  7. Varani J, Orr W, Ward PA: Comparison of cell attachment and caseinolytic activities of five tumour cell types. J Cell Sci. 1978 Dec;34:133-44. [748334 ]
  8. Hoverstad T, Fausa O, Bjorneklett A, Bohmer T: Short-chain fatty acids in the normal human feces. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1984 May;19(3):375-81. [6740214 ]
  9. Harkness RA: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: reduced amino acid concentrations in CSF and brain. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1989;253A:159-63. [2624185 ]
  10. Traul KA, Driedger A, Ingle DL, Nakhasi D: Review of the toxicologic properties of medium-chain triglycerides. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000 Jan;38(1):79-98. [10685018 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
35853.125 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5068.2 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 16433
  1. Ferrari AM, Degliesposti G, Sgobba M, Rastelli G: Validation of an automated procedure for the prediction of relative free energies of binding on a set of aldose reductase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Dec 15;15(24):7865-77. Epub 2007 Aug 22. [17870536 ]