Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-05 17:12:07 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:53 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4596
Identification
Common NameDodecanoic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionLauric acid, or dodecanoic acid is the main fatty acid in coconut oil and in palm kernel oil, and is believed to have antimicrobial properties. It is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil. Lauric acid, although slightly irritating to mucous membranes, has a very low toxicity and so is used in many soaps and shampoos.
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Undecanecarboxylate
1-Undecanecarboxylic acid
ABL
Aliphat No. 4
C12 fatty acid
Coconut oil fatty acids
DAO
Dodecanoate
Dodecanoic (lauric) acid
Dodecanoic acid (lauric acid)
Dodecoic acid
Dodecylate
Dodecylcarboxylate
Dodecylic acid
Duodecyclic acid
Duodecylic acid
Edenor C 1298-100
Emery 650
Emery 651
Hydrofol acid 1255
Hydrofol acid 1295
Hystrene 9512
Kortacid 1299
LAP
LAU
Laurate
Lauric acid
Lauric acid (natural)
Lauric acid, pure
Laurinsaeure
Laurostearate
Laurostearic acid
Lunac L 70
Lunac L 98
N-Dodecanoate
N-Dodecanoic acid
Neo-Fat 12
Neo-Fat 12-43
Ninol AA62 extra
Nissan NAA 122
Philacid 1200
Prifac 2920
Prifrac 2920
Undecane-1-carboxylic acid
Univol U 314
Univol U-314
Vulvate
Vulvic acid
Wecoline 1295
Chemical FormulaC12H24O2
Average Molecular Mass200.318 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass200.178 g/mol
CAS Registry Number143-07-7
IUPAC Namedodecanoic acid
Traditional Namelauric acid
SMILESCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H24O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12(13)14/h2-11H2,1H3,(H,13,14)
InChI KeyInChIKey=POULHZVOKOAJMA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMedium-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Liver
  • Prostate
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Thyroid Gland
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point44 - 46°C
Boiling Point298.9°C
Solubility4.81 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP4.6
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.01 g/LALOGPS
logP5.13ALOGPS
logP4.48ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity58.68 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability25.85 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-0910000000-a12b321a54a44ae28972View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-014i-2910000000-d52410168e784872a5a6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-06xx-9100000000-1ef5cd411f38c53a0a92View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0706-9100000000-e66a9147257053b93702View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0706-9100000000-2dd666a9a0355b1ca144View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-074i-9300000000-405ec308fe8c935c62a2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-067i-0930000000-6a80d41e346f4b10104cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-0910000000-a12b321a54a44ae28972View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-2910000000-d52410168e784872a5a6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-1910000000-8246864bf316bce609a2View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9500000000-e05832f94ff0361363a2View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05g0-9310000000-038e232cccb44582ec9cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-2290000000-861c4b7b2da35b82ef7fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4l-9100000000-966cf4c6621fcec41368View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-054o-9000000000-d43dd32656ad22e95fddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-06xx-9100000000-a71409efaf5fdd6ab0e1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-AX-505-H) , Positivesplash10-0706-9100000000-eb09296a8c4c7c381b38View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-f22d8298d64e6f382279View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-4bb88d3b1d2b7ac88152View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-0c79a7257b53685108c6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-9600000000-25d268515337ef276c60View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-009b-9000000000-c00963f9b91f4a82e1efView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-f22d8298d64e6f382279View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-4bb88d3b1d2b7ac88152View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-0c79a7257b53685108c6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0920000000-63cd88b9477cd281d342View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a5c-4910000000-94738a1f436dcf1abcedView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9100000000-07ca8cffe5ba2f9f920dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0920000000-63cd88b9477cd281d342View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a5c-4910000000-94738a1f436dcf1abcedView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9100000000-07ca8cffe5ba2f9f920dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-1655e63166b4d9dd4f59View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0532-1900000000-7c55a9ca2b49d4920029View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9400000000-ed8f6bcf96c68ac84738View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-1655e63166b4d9dd4f59View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0532-1900000000-7c55a9ca2b49d4920029View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9400000000-ed8f6bcf96c68ac84738View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-074l-9100000000-911a01d38925d0de481fView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03017
HMDB IDHMDB00638
PubChem Compound ID3893
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL108766
ChemSpider ID3756
KEGG IDC02679
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID30805
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDDAO
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDodecanoic acid
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4596.pdf
General References
  1. Amet Y, Berthou F, Fournier G, Dreano Y, Bardou L, Cledes J, Menez JF: Cytochrome P450 4A and 2E1 expression in human kidney microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Mar 21;53(6):765-71. [9113097 ]
  2. Smith SW, Anderson BD: Human skin permeability enhancement by lauric acid under equilibrium aqueous conditions. J Pharm Sci. 1995 May;84(5):551-6. [7658343 ]
  3. Powell PK, Wolf I, Lasker JM: Identification of CYP4A11 as the major lauric acid omega-hydroxylase in human liver microsomes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996 Nov 1;335(1):219-26. [8914854 ]
  4. Ryan MT, Chopra RK: The paradoxical effect of fatty acid on steroid-albumin interaction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 18;427(1):337-49. [1260006 ]
  5. Amet Y, Berthou F, Baird S, Dreano Y, Bail JP, Menez JF: Validation of the (omega-1)-hydroxylation of lauric acid as an in vitro substrate probe for human liver CYP2E1. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 Nov 27;50(11):1775-82. [8615855 ]
  6. Kitahara T, Koyama N, Matsuda J, Aoyama Y, Hirakata Y, Kamihira S, Kohno S, Nakashima M, Sasaki H: Antimicrobial activity of saturated fatty acids and fatty amines against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Sep;27(9):1321-6. [15340213 ]
  7. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Lauric Acid Diethanolamine Condensate (CAS NO. 120-40-1) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dermal Studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser. 1999 Jul;480:1-200. [12571683 ]
  8. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [8412012 ]
  9. Amet Y, Berthou F, Menez JF: Simultaneous radiometric and fluorimetric detection of lauric acid metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography following esterification with 4-bromomethyl-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin in human and rat liver microsomes. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1996 Jun 7;681(2):233-9. [8811432 ]
  10. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular Weight:
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Phospholipase activator activity
Specific Function:
The large binding pocket can accommodate several single chain phospholipids and fatty acids, GM2A also exhibits some calcium-independent phospholipase activity (By similarity). Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3.
Gene Name:
GM2A
Uniprot ID:
P17900
Molecular Weight:
20838.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Retinol binding
Specific Function:
C8 is a constituent of the membrane attack complex. C8 binds to the C5B-7 complex, forming the C5B-8 complex. C5-B8 binds C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9. The gamma subunit seems to be able to bind retinol.
Gene Name:
C8G
Uniprot ID:
P07360
Molecular Weight:
22277.285 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Lipid binding
Specific Function:
Accelerates the intermembrane transfer of various glycolipids. Catalyzes the transfer of various glycosphingolipids between membranes but does not catalyze the transfer of phospholipids. May be involved in the intracellular translocation of glucosylceramides.
Gene Name:
GLTP
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZD2
Molecular Weight:
23849.6 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine is more efficiently hydrolyzed than the other phospholipids examined.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2D
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNK4
Molecular Weight:
16546.1 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Transcriptionally controlled transcription factor. Binds to DNA sites required for the transcription of alpha 1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein CIII, transthyretin genes and HNF1-alpha. May be essential for development of the liver, kidney and intestine.
Gene Name:
HNF4A
Uniprot ID:
P41235
Molecular Weight:
52784.205 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate.Lactotransferrin is a major iron-binding and multifunctional protein found in exocrine fluids such as breast milk and mucosal secretions. Has antimicrobial activity, which depends on the extracellular cation concentration. Antimicrobial properties include bacteriostasis, which is related to its ability to sequester free iron and thus inhibit microbial growth, as well as direct bactericidal properties leading to the release of lipopolysaccharides from the bacterial outer membrane. Can also prevent bacterial biofilm development in P.aeruginosa infection. Has weak antifungal activity against C.albicans. Has anabolic, differentiating and anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and can also inhibit osteoclastogenesis, possibly playing a role in the regulation of bone growth. Promotes binding of species C adenoviruses to epithelial cells, promoting adenovirus infection. Can inhibit papillomavirus infections. Stimulates the TLR4 signaling pathway leading to NF-kappa-B activation and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production while also interfering with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated TLR4 signaling. Inhibits neutrophil granulocyte migration to sites of apoptosis, when secreted by apoptotic cells. Stimulates VEGFA-mediated endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Binds heparin, chondroitin sulfate and possibly other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Also binds specifically to pneumococcal surface protein A (pspA), the lipid A portion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lysozyme and DNA.Lactoferricin binds to the bacterial surface and is crucial for the bactericidal functions. Has some antiviral activity against papillomavirus infection. N-terminal region shows strong antifungal activity against C.albicans. Contains two BBXB heparin-binding consensus sequences that appear to form the predominate functional GAG-binding site.Kaliocin-1 has antimicrobial activity and is able to permeabilize different ions through liposomal membranes.Lactoferroxins A, B and C have opioid antagonist activity. Lactoferroxin A shows preference for mu-receptors, while lactoferroxin B and C have somewhat higher degrees of preference for kappa-receptors than for mu-receptors.The lactotransferrin transferrin-like domain 1 functions as a serine protease of the peptidase S60 family that cuts arginine rich regions. This function contributes to the antimicrobial activity.Isoform DeltaLf: transcription factor with antiproliferative properties and ability to induce cell cycle arrest. Binds to the DeltaLf response element found in the SKP1, BAX, DCPS, and SELH promoters.
Gene Name:
LTF
Uniprot ID:
P02788
Molecular Weight:
78181.225 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Lipopolysaccharide receptor activity
Specific Function:
Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:17569869). Cooperates with TLR4 in the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and with TLR2 in the response to cell wall components from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:11160242, PubMed:11593030). Enhances TLR4-dependent activation of NF-kappa-B (PubMed:10359581). Cells expressing both LY96 and TLR4, but not TLR4 alone, respond to LPS (PubMed:10359581).
Gene Name:
LY96
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6Y9
Molecular Weight:
18545.345 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Murakami K, Ide T, Suzuki M, Mochizuki T, Kadowaki T: Evidence for direct binding of fatty acids and eicosanoids to human peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jul 14;260(3):609-13. [10403814 ]
General Function:
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID:
P14555
Molecular Weight:
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response (PubMed:9237759, PubMed:10835634). Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by free fatty acids, such as palmitate, and Ni(2+). Responses triggered by Ni(2+) require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific (PubMed:20711192). In complex with TLR6, promotes sterile inflammation in monocytes/macrophages in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or amyloid-beta 42. In this context, the initial signal is provided by oxLDL- or amyloid-beta 42-binding to CD36. This event induces the formation of a heterodimer of TLR4 and TLR6, which is rapidly internalized and triggers inflammatory response, leading to the NF-kappa-B-dependent production of CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL9 cytokines, via MYD88 signaling pathway, and CCL5 cytokine, via TICAM1 signaling pathway, as well as IL1B secretion. Binds electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) and mediates the cytokine release induced by LDL(-) (PubMed:23880187).
Gene Name:
TLR4
Uniprot ID:
O00206
Molecular Weight:
95679.19 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor activity
Specific Function:
Binds VLDL and transports it into cells by endocytosis. In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clathrin-coated pits. Binding to Reelin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 and modulation of Tau phosphorylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
VLDLR
Uniprot ID:
P98155
Molecular Weight:
96097.45 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.00 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]