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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-08 02:41:21 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:54 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4656
Identification
Common NameP-Chloroacetophenone
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionP-Chloroacetophenone is a lachrymatory agent. It produces immediate pain to the eyes and irritate mucous membranes. This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acetophenones. These are organic compounds containing the acetophenone structure.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC8H7ClO
Average Molecular Mass154.594 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass154.019 g/mol
CAS Registry Number99-91-2
IUPAC Name1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethan-1-one
Traditional Name4-chloroacetophenone
SMILESCC(=O)C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C8H7ClO/c1-6(10)7-2-4-8(9)5-3-7/h2-5H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=BUZYGTVTZYSBCU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkyl-phenylketones. These are aromatic compounds containing a ketone substituted by one alkyl group, and a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentAlkyl-phenylketones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkyl-phenylketone
  • Acetophenone
  • Aryl alkyl ketone
  • Benzoyl
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.31 g/LALOGPS
logP2.41ALOGPS
logP2.13ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.06ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity41.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.35 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-1352daae59d67c48ed33JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-c503d8973e8d04e104a2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-08c0b998988210bd8d99JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-7c780c2a92280928c51dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-25c349ca5ff8b94aeaf2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ik9-2900000000-bf404271ce99715f44c6JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01p9-3900000000-d89340e6b6ac518a2077JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7467
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL608419
ChemSpider ID13835126
KEGG IDC06647
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4656.pdf
General References
  1. Blain PG: Tear gases and irritant incapacitants. 1-chloroacetophenone, 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile and dibenz[b,f]-1,4-oxazepine. Toxicol Rev. 2003;22(2):103-10. [15071820 ]
  2. Brone B, Peeters PJ, Marrannes R, Mercken M, Nuydens R, Meert T, Gijsen HJ: Tear gasses CN, CR, and CS are potent activators of the human TRPA1 receptor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Sep 1;231(2):150-6. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2008.04.005. Epub 2008 Apr 20. [18501939 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), EIF2B, CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC, AXIN1, DPYSL2/CRMP2, JUN, NFATC1/NFATC, MAPT/TAU and MACF1. Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates. In skeletal muscle, contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis. May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors. Regulates protein synthesis by controlling the activity of initiation factor 2B (EIF2BE/EIF2B5) in the same manner as glycogen synthase. In Wnt signaling, GSK3B forms a multimeric complex with APC, AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin and phosphorylates the N-terminus of CTNNB1 leading to its degradation mediated by ubiquitin/proteasomes. Phosphorylates JUN at sites proximal to its DNA-binding domain, thereby reducing its affinity for DNA. Phosphorylates NFATC1/NFATC on conserved serine residues promoting NFATC1/NFATC nuclear export, shutting off NFATC1/NFATC gene regulation, and thereby opposing the action of calcineurin. Phosphorylates MAPT/TAU on 'Thr-548', decreasing significantly MAPT/TAU ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. MAPT/TAU is the principal component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease. Plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. Phosphorylates MACF1, inhibiting its binding to microtubules which is critical for its role in bulge stem cell migration and skin wound repair. Probably regulates NF-kappa-B (NFKB1) at the transcriptional level and is required for the NF-kappa-B-mediated anti-apoptotic response to TNF-alpha (TNF/TNFA). Negatively regulates replication in pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in apoptosis, loss of beta-cells and diabetes. Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation. Phosphorylates MUC1 in breast cancer cells, decreasing the interaction of MUC1 with CTNNB1/beta-catenin. Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth. Phosphorylates MARK2, leading to inhibit its activity. Phosphorylates SIK1 at 'Thr-182', leading to sustain its activity. Phosphorylates ZC3HAV1 which enhances its antiviral activity. Phosphorylates SNAI1, leading to its BTRC-triggered ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates SFPQ at 'Thr-687' upon T-cell activation. Phosphorylates NR1D1 st 'Ser-55' and 'Ser-59' and stabilizes it by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. Regulates the circadian clock via phosphorylation of the major clock components including ARNTL/BMAL1, CLOCK and PER2. Phosphorylates CLOCK AT 'Ser-427' and targets it for proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates ARNTL/BMAL1 at 'Ser-17' and 'Ser-21' and primes it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates OGT at 'Ser-3' or 'Ser-4' which positively regulates its activity. Phosphorylates MYCN in neuroblastoma cells which may promote its degradation (PubMed:24391509).
Gene Name:
GSK3B
Uniprot ID:
P49841
Molecular Weight:
46743.865 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50304447
References
  1. Perez DI, Conde S, Perez C, Gil C, Simon D, Wandosell F, Moreno FJ, Gelpi JL, Luque FJ, Martinez A: Thienylhalomethylketones: Irreversible glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors as useful pharmacological tools. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Oct 1;17(19):6914-25. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.08.042. Epub 2009 Aug 22. [19747834 ]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]