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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 02:05:30 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:55 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4699
Identification
Common NameIsopropyl alcohol
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionIsopropyl alcohol or 2-propanol is an isomer of 1-propanol. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic. Small amounts of this alcohol are produced naturally by gut microbial flora.
Compound Type
  • Disinfectant
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Solvent
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Propanol
2-Propyl alcohol
Alcojel
Alkolave
Avantin
Avantine
Hartosol
Isopropanol
Lavaco
Petrohol
Takineocol
Chemical FormulaC3H8O
Average Molecular Mass60.095 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass60.058 g/mol
CAS Registry Number67-63-0
IUPAC Namepropan-2-ol
Traditional Nameisopropyl alcohol
SMILESCC(C)O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H8O/c1-3(2)4/h3-4H,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=KFZMGEQAYNKOFK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as secondary alcohols. Secondary alcohols are compounds containing a secondary alcohol functional group, with the general structure HOC(R)(R') (R,R'=alkyl, aryl).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassAlcohols and polyols
Direct ParentSecondary alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Pancreas
  • Platelet
  • Skin
  • Stratum Corneum
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-89.5°C
Boiling Point82.3°C
Solubility1E+006 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP0.05
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility378 g/LALOGPS
logP0.04ALOGPS
logP0.25ChemAxon
logS0.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)17.26ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity17.43 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability7.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-b56f808ef55c854e8324JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-f68d78a99d0ee77081c8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-a1c27780d39325f67c84JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-40a45591af6378500aebJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-2261ea7d03d835d46644JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-3c81c56ab53eb5aaa2ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-7936ed4d93d5699b0366JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-b56f808ef55c854e8324JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-f68d78a99d0ee77081c8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-a1c27780d39325f67c84JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-40a45591af6378500aebJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-2261ea7d03d835d46644JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-3c81c56ab53eb5aaa2ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-7936ed4d93d5699b0366JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-026d02184beec46b90ccJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-010c-9200000000-82e9183374d718888481JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-958007b112253f530fa1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03dl-9000000000-eec0fd84c38e3cc2fb7dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-e524005ac3e29f5e6e60JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-b56f808ef55c854e8324JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-2261ea7d03d835d46644JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-3c81c56ab53eb5aaa2ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-7936ed4d93d5699b0366JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-52e1a906e58615d920fdJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-e66cba449fc3e39cabcbJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-34d2b3ce7e4949d6207eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-06d1878fb0f08269b040JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a3c0cec1f0523a5089d6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-b7cef7808f5c6bfd85c9JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0002-9000000000-8f0393a68e54e5668638JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (13)
Uses/SourcesIt is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic. Small amounts of this alcohol are produced naturally by gut microbial flora.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02325
HMDB IDHMDB00863
PubChem Compound ID3776
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL582
ChemSpider ID3644
KEGG IDC01845
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17824
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDIOH
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkIsopropyl alcohol
References
Synthesis Reference

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol#Laboratory_synthesis

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Lindberg M, Farm G, Scheynius A: Differential effects of sodium lauryl sulphate and non-anoic acid on the expression of CD1a and ICAM-1 in human epidermis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1991;71(5):384-8. [1684465 ]
  2. Lee CK, Ho PL, Chan NK, Mak A, Hong J, Lin CK: Impact of donor arm skin disinfection on the bacterial contamination rate of platelet concentrates. Vox Sang. 2002 Oct;83(3):204-8. [12366760 ]
  3. Specht C, Stoye I, Muller-Goymann CC: Comparative investigations to evaluate the use of organotypic cultures of transformed and native dermal and epidermal cells for permeation studies. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1998 Nov;46(3):273-8. [9885298 ]
  4. Zesch A, Schaefer H: [On interactions of drugs on and in the skin/comparative studies on the mutual influences of ethyleneglycol-monosalicylate and benzylnicotinate (author's transl)]. Derm Beruf Umwelt. 1981;29(6):161-7. [7338200 ]
  5. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 1-Chloro-2-propanol (Technical Grade) (CAS NO. 127-00-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Drinking Water Studies. Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser. 1998 Sep;477:1-264. [12571686 ]
  6. Liu P, Bergstrom TK: Quantitative evaluation of aqueous isopropyl alcohol enhancement on skin flux of terbutaline (sulfate). 2. Permeability contributions of equilibrated drug species across human skin in vitro. J Pharm Sci. 1996 Mar;85(3):320-5. [8699337 ]
  7. Froman RD, Owen SV, Murphy C: Isopropyl pad use in neonatal intensive care units. J Perinatol. 1998 May-Jun;18(3):216-20. [9659653 ]
  8. Bailey DG, Wilson TW, Johnson GE: A gas chromatographic method for measuring 6-mercaptopurine in serum. J Chromatogr. 1975 Sep 3;111(2):305-11. [1159009 ]
  9. Abdashirova NF: [Peculiarities of alternations in free radical oxidation in blood of humans contacting ozone at work]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1999;33(1):38-41. [10330571 ]
  10. Wittmann S, Gilg T, Dietz HG, Grantzow R, Peschel O, von Meyer L: [Isopropanol and acetone level in serum after preoperative surface disinfection with antiseptics containing isopropanol]. Blutalkohol. 1992 Sep;29(5):326-35. [1389018 ]
  11. Anderson LM, Koseniauskas R, Burak ES, Moskal TJ, Gombar CT, Phillips JM, Sansone EB, Keimig S, Magee PN, Rice JM, et al.: Reduced blood clearance and increased urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in patas monkeys exposed to ethanol or isopropyl alcohol. Cancer Res. 1992 Mar 15;52(6):1463-8. [1540953 ]
  12. Jones AE, Summers RL: Detection of isopropyl alcohol in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis. J Emerg Med. 2000 Aug;19(2):165-8. [10903466 ]
  13. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Ribonuclease a activity
Specific Function:
Endonuclease that catalyzes the cleavage of RNA on the 3' side of pyrimidine nucleotides. Acts on single-stranded and double-stranded RNA.
Gene Name:
RNASE1
Uniprot ID:
P07998
Molecular Weight:
17644.125 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
U6 snrna binding
Specific Function:
Involved in nuclear export of spliced and unspliced mRNA. Assembling component of the TREX complex which is thought to couple mRNA transcription, processing and nuclear export, and specifically associates with spliced mRNA and not with unspliced pre-mRNA. TREX is recruited to spliced mRNAs by a transcription-independent mechanism, binds to mRNA upstream of the exon-junction complex (EJC) and is recruited in a splicing- and cap-dependent manner to a region near the 5' end of the mRNA where it functions in mRNA export to the cytoplasm via the TAP/NFX1 pathway. May undergo several rounds of ATP hydrolysis during assembly of TREX to drive subsequent loading of components such as ALYREF/THOC and CHTOP onto mRNA. The TREX complex is essential for the export of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) intronless mRNAs and infectious virus production. Also associates with pre-mRNA independent of ALYREF/THOC4 and the THO complex. Involved in the nuclear export of intronless mRNA; the ATP-bound form is proposed to recruit export adapter ALYREF/THOC4 to intronless mRNA; its ATPase activity is cooperatively stimulated by RNA and ALYREF/THOC4 and ATP hydrolysis is thought to trigger the dissociation from RNA to allow the association of ALYREF/THOC4 and the NXF1-NXT1 heterodimer. Involved in transcription elongation and genome stability.Splice factor that is required for the first ATP-dependent step in spliceosome assembly and for the interaction of U2 snRNP with the branchpoint. Has both RNA-stimulated ATP binding/hydrolysis activity and ATP-dependent RNA unwinding activity. Even with the stimulation of RNA, the ATPase activity is weak. Can only hydrolyze ATP but not other NTPs. The RNA stimulation of ATPase activity does not have a strong preference for the sequence and length of the RNA. However, ssRNA stimulates the ATPase activity much more strongly than dsRNA. Can unwind 5' or 3' overhangs or blunt end RNA duplexes in vitro. The ATPase and helicase activities are not influenced by U2AF2; the effect of ALYREF/THOC4 is reported conflictingly with [PubMed:23299939] reporting a stimulatory effect.
Gene Name:
DDX39B
Uniprot ID:
Q13838
Molecular Weight:
48990.945 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
In the ileum, may be involved in defensin processing, including DEFA5.
Gene Name:
PRSS2
Uniprot ID:
P07478
Molecular Weight:
26487.55 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Adenosylhomocysteine is a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyl transferase reactions; therefore adenosylhomocysteinase may play a key role in the control of methylations via regulation of the intracellular concentration of adenosylhomocysteine.
Gene Name:
AHCY
Uniprot ID:
P23526
Molecular Weight:
47715.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Endochitinase activity
Specific Function:
Degrades chitin, chitotriose and chitobiose. May participate in the defense against nematodes and other pathogens. Isoform 3 has no enzymatic activity.
Gene Name:
CHIT1
Uniprot ID:
Q13231
Molecular Weight:
51680.985 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Positively regulates nitric oxide synthesis in umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). May be involved in dopamine synthesis. May modify pain sensitivity and persistence. Isoform GCH-1 is the functional enzyme, the potential function of the enzymatically inactive isoforms remains unknown.
Gene Name:
GCH1
Uniprot ID:
P30793
Molecular Weight:
27902.855 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Phospholipase activator activity
Specific Function:
The large binding pocket can accommodate several single chain phospholipids and fatty acids, GM2A also exhibits some calcium-independent phospholipase activity (By similarity). Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3.
Gene Name:
GM2A
Uniprot ID:
P17900
Molecular Weight:
20838.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of formate and 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate (KMTB) from 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene (DHK-MTPene). Also down-regulates cell migration mediated by MMP14. Necessary for hepatitis C virus replication in an otherwise non-permissive cell line.
Gene Name:
ADI1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BV57
Molecular Weight:
21498.23 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on nad(p)h, quinone or similar compound as acceptor
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of several pentoses, tetroses, trioses, alpha-dicarbonyl compounds and L-xylulose. Participates in the uronate cycle of glucose metabolism. May play a role in the water absorption and cellular osmoregulation in the proximal renal tubules by producing xylitol, an osmolyte, thereby preventing osmolytic stress from occurring in the renal tubules.
Gene Name:
DCXR
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4W1
Molecular Weight:
25912.875 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. May play a role in the regulation of phospholipid turnover as well as in protection against oxidative injury.
Gene Name:
PRDX6
Uniprot ID:
P30041
Molecular Weight:
25034.715 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID:
P14555
Molecular Weight:
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Ferrous iron binding
Specific Function:
Involved in osteopontin/bone sialoprotein dephosphorylation. Its expression seems to increase in certain pathological states such as Gaucher and Hodgkin diseases, the hairy cell, the B-cell, and the T-cell leukemias.
Gene Name:
ACP5
Uniprot ID:
P13686
Molecular Weight:
36598.47 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Impairs regulatory T-cells (Treg) function in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis via FOXP3 dephosphorylation. Upregulates the expression of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which dephosphorylates the key 'Ser-418' residue of FOXP3, thereby inactivating FOXP3 and rendering Treg cells functionally defective (PubMed:23396208). Key mediator of cell death in the anticancer action of BCG-stimulated neutrophils in combination with DIABLO/SMAC mimetic in the RT4v6 bladder cancer cell line (PubMed:22517918).The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells.
Gene Name:
TNF
Uniprot ID:
P01375
Molecular Weight:
25644.15 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Triphosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional mRNA-capping enzyme exhibiting RNA 5'-triphosphatase activity in the N-terminal part and mRNA guanylyltransferase activity in the C-terminal part. Catalyzes the first two steps of cap formation: by removing the gamma-phosphate from the 5'-triphosphate end of nascent mRNA to yield a diphosphate end, and by transferring the gmp moiety of GTP to the 5'-diphosphate terminus.
Gene Name:
RNGTT
Uniprot ID:
O60942
Molecular Weight:
68556.21 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific Function:
Growth factor involved in bone and cartilage formation. During cartilage development regulates differentiation of chondrogenic tissue through two pathways. Firstly, positively regulates differentiation of chondrogenic tissue through its binding of high affinity with BMPR1B and of less affinity with BMPR1A, leading to induction of SMAD1-SMAD5-SMAD8 complex phosphorylation and then SMAD protein signaling transduction (PubMed:24098149, PubMed:21976273, PubMed:15530414, PubMed:25092592). Secondly, negatively regulates chondrogenic differentiation through its interaction with NOG (PubMed:21976273). Required to prevent excessive muscle loss upon denervation. This function requires SMAD4 and is mediated by phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 (By similarity). Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and mediates LPS-induced inflammatory response, including TNF secretion by monocytes (PubMed:11276205).
Gene Name:
GDF5
Uniprot ID:
P43026
Molecular Weight:
55410.15 Da
General Function:
Antigen binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P06312
Molecular Weight:
12639.965 Da