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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:13:40 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4726
Identification
Common NameAlteplase
ClassProtein
DescriptionHuman tissue plasminogen activator, purified, glycosylated, 527 residues purified from CHO cells.
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Protein
  • Thrombolytic Agent
Protein StructureT3d4726
Synonyms
Synonym
Activase
t-PA
t-plasminogen activator
Tissue-type plasminogen activator precursor
tPA
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass62916.495 g/mol
CAS Registry Number105857-23-6
Sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0002165|Tissue-type plasminogen activator
MDAMKRGLCCVLLLCGAVFVSPSQEIHARFRRGARSYQVICRDEKTQMIYQQHQSWLRPV
LRSNRVEYCWCNSGRAQCHSVPVKSCSEPRCFNGGTCQQALYFSDFVCQCPEGFAGKCCE
IDTRATCYEDQGISYRGTWSTAESGAECTNWNSSALAQKPYSGRRPDAIRLGLGNHNYCR
NPDRDSKPWCYVFKAGKYSSEFCSTPACSEGNSDCYFGNGSAYRGTHSLTESGASCLPWN
SMILIGKVYTAQNPSAQALGLGKHNYCRNPDGDAKPWCHVLKNRRLTWEYCDVPSCSTCG
LRQYSQPQFRIKGGLFADIASHPWQAAIFAKHRRSPGERFLCGGILISSCWILSAAHCFQ
ERFPPHHLTVILGRTYRVVPGEEEQKFEVEKYIVHKEFDDDTYDNDIALLQLKSDSSRCA
QESSVVRTVCLPPADLQLPDWTECELSGYGKHEALSPFYSERLKEAHVRLYPSSRCTSQH
LLNRTVTDNMLCAGDTRSGGPQANLHDACQGDSGGPLVCLNDGRMTLVGIISWGLGCGQK
DVPGVYTKVTNYLDWIRDNMRP
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear solution.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point60°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral
Mechanism of ToxicityAlteplase binds to fibrin rich clots via the fibronectin finger-like domain and the Kringle 2 domain. The protease domain then cleaves the Arg/Val bond in plasminogen to form plasmin. Plasmin in turn degrades the fibrin matrix of the thrombus, thereby exerting its thrombolytic action.
MetabolismFree toxin may be removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system (primarily the liver and kidneys) or it may be degraded through cellular internalization via the lysosomes. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of digestive enzymes, including several proteases.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor management of acute myocardial infarction, acute ischemic strok and for lysis of acute pulmonary emboli
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00009
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1201593
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDP00750
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAlteplase
PDB ID1A5H
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAlteplase
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4726.pdf
General ReferencesNot Available
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function:
Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells.Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.
Gene Name:
PLG
Uniprot ID:
P00747
Molecular Weight:
90568.415 Da
References
  1. Longstaff C, Williams S, Thelwell C: Fibrin binding and the regulation of plasminogen activators during thrombolytic therapy. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2008 Jul;6(3):212-23. [18673235 ]
  2. Melandri G, Vagnarelli F, Calabrese D, Semprini F, Nanni S, Branzi A: Review of tenecteplase (TNKase) in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5(1):249-56. Epub 2009 Apr 8. [19436656 ]
  3. Hilleman DE, Tsikouris JP, Seals AA, Marmur JD: Fibrinolytic agents for the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Nov;27(11):1558-70. [17963464 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Cleaved by the protease thrombin to yield monomers which, together with fibrinogen beta (FGB) and fibrinogen gamma (FGG), polymerize to form an insoluble fibrin matrix. Fibrin has a major function in hemostasis as one of the primary components of blood clots. In addition, functions during the early stages of wound repair to stabilize the lesion and guide cell migration during re-epithelialization. Was originally thought to be essential for platelet aggregation, based on in vitro studies using anticoagulated blood. However, subsequent studies have shown that it is not absolutely required for thrombus formation in vivo. Enhances expression of SELP in activated platelets via an ITGB3-dependent pathway. Maternal fibrinogen is essential for successful pregnancy. Fibrin deposition is also associated with infection, where it protects against IFNG-mediated hemorrhage. May also facilitate the immune response via both innate and T-cell mediated pathways.
Gene Name:
FGA
Uniprot ID:
P02671
Molecular Weight:
94972.455 Da
References
  1. Longstaff C, Williams S, Thelwell C: Fibrin binding and the regulation of plasminogen activators during thrombolytic therapy. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2008 Jul;6(3):212-23. [18673235 ]
  2. Melandri G, Vagnarelli F, Calabrese D, Semprini F, Nanni S, Branzi A: Review of tenecteplase (TNKase) in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5(1):249-56. Epub 2009 Apr 8. [19436656 ]
  3. Hilleman DE, Tsikouris JP, Seals AA, Marmur JD: Fibrinolytic agents for the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Nov;27(11):1558-70. [17963464 ]
General Function:
Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor activity
Specific Function:
Acts as a receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Plays a role in localizing and promoting plasmin formation. Mediates the proteolysis-independent signal transduction activation effects of U-PA. It is subject to negative-feedback regulation by U-PA which cleaves it into an inactive form.
Gene Name:
PLAUR
Uniprot ID:
Q03405
Molecular Weight:
36977.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function:
Serine protease inhibitor. This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, protein C and matriptase-3/TMPRSS7. Its rapid interaction with PLAT may function as a major control point in the regulation of fibrinolysis.
Gene Name:
SERPINE1
Uniprot ID:
P05121
Molecular Weight:
45059.695 Da
References
  1. Hilleman DE, Tsikouris JP, Seals AA, Marmur JD: Fibrinolytic agents for the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Nov;27(11):1558-70. [17963464 ]