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Record Information
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:13:58 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4734
Common NameSalmeterol
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSalmeterol is a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug that is currently prescribed for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.
Compound Type
  • Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonist
  • Amine
  • Bronchodilator Agent
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Organic Compound
  • Sympathomimetic
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Aeromax Diskus
Serevent diskus
Chemical FormulaC25H37NO4
Average Molecular Mass415.566 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass415.272 g/mol
CAS Registry Number89365-50-4
IUPAC Name4-(1-hydroxy-2-{[6-(4-phenylbutoxy)hexyl]amino}ethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
Traditional Namesalmeterol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C25H37NO4/c27-20-23-18-22(13-14-24(23)28)25(29)19-26-15-7-1-2-8-16-30-17-9-6-12-21-10-4-3-5-11-21/h3-5,10-11,13-14,18,25-29H,1-2,6-9,12,15-17,19-20H2
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzyl alcohols. These are organic compounds containing the phenylmethanol substructure.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzyl alcohols
Direct ParentBenzyl alcohols
Alternative Parents
  • Benzyl alcohol
  • Phenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary amine
  • Amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point75.5-76.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilitySparingly soluble
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0023 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area81.95 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count16ChemAxon
Refractivity122.39 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability50.6 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fl4-1931000000-aebe04422bbfbd21a187JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-02tc-5973658000-6d357698fc40226d221aJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014i-0001900000-3c44a8f19551abbbb83aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-001j-0029000000-43896c08fd5ce2a060e8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-001i-4972000000-23117c7d5dc844d67897JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0006-6910000000-2afb08aff0a51fff0532JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0006-9800000000-5575125dd87cfbd258a8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00kb-0229500000-3598d6091893d5b1aa38JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00l2-0239300000-048a637b7c1acf79f394JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001j-2986000000-c7d8a74f19032d089bf5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0f8c-4920000000-a6c163078dfcde75e91fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03dj-0435900000-cc06b9723667c55e1a58JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0898200000-63660974abcc88edf138JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-006t-1920000000-5acac3c6e55225ea19baJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureBecause of the small therapeutic dose, systemic levels of salmeterol are low or undetectable after inhalation of recommended doses.
Mechanism of ToxicitySalmeterol's long, lipophilic side chain binds to exosites near beta(2)-receptors in the lungs and on bronchiolar smooth muscle, allowing the active portion of the molecule to remain at the receptor site, continually binding and releasing. Beta(2)-receptor stimulation in the lung causes relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, bronchodilation, and increased bronchial airflow.
MetabolismHepatic, metabolized by hydroxylation via CYP3A4 Half Life: 5.5 hours
Toxicity ValuesBy the oral route, no deaths occurred in rats at 1,000 mg/kg (approximately 81,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults and approximately 38,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in children on a mg/m2 basis).
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include angina (chest pain), dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, headache, heart irregularities, high or low blood pressure, high blood sugar, insomnia, muscle cramps, nausea, nervousness, rapid heartbeat, seizures, and tremor.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00938
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID5152
ChemSpider ID4968
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSalmeterol
Synthesis Reference

Panayiotis Procopiou, “Novel process for preparing salmeterol.” U.S. Patent US20030162840, issued August 28, 2003.

MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Salpeter SR, Buckley NS, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE: Meta-analysis: effect of long-acting beta-agonists on severe asthma exacerbations and asthma-related deaths. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jun 20;144(12):904-12. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16754916 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
  1. Rong Y, Arbabian M, Thiriot DS, Seibold A, Clark RB, Ruoho AE: Probing the salmeterol binding site on the beta 2-adrenergic receptor using a novel photoaffinity ligand, [(125)I]iodoazidosalmeterol. Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 31;38(35):11278-86. [10471277 ]
  2. Finney PA, Donnelly LE, Belvisi MG, Chuang TT, Birrell M, Harris A, Mak JC, Scorer C, Barnes PJ, Adcock IM, Giembycz MA: Chronic systemic administration of salmeterol to rats promotes pulmonary beta(2)-adrenoceptor desensitization and down-regulation of G(s alpha). Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;132(6):1261-70. [11250877 ]
  3. Green SA, Rathz DA, Schuster AJ, Liggett SB: The Ile164 beta(2)-adrenoceptor polymorphism alters salmeterol exosite binding and conventional agonist coupling to G(s). Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Jun 15;421(3):141-7. [11516429 ]
  4. Meliton AY, Munoz NM, Liu J, Lambertino AT, Boetticher E, Myo S, Myou S, Zhu X, Johnson M, Leff AR: Blockade of LTC4 synthesis caused by additive inhibition of gIV-PLA2 phosphorylation: Effect of salmeterol and PDE4 inhibition in human eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Aug;112(2):404-10. [12897749 ]
  5. Brogden RN, Faulds D: Salmeterol xinafoate: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in reversible obstructive airways disease. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1992 Mar-Apr;20(2):72-84. [1359777 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]