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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:15:10 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4758
Identification
Common NameQuercetin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionQuercetin is a flavonoid widely distributed in many plants and fruits including red grapes, citrus fruit, tomato, broccoli and other leafy green vegetables, and a number of berries, including raspberries and cranberries. Quercetin itself (aglycone quercetin), as opposed to quercetin glycosides, is not a normal dietary component. Quercitin glycosides are converted to phenolic acids as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. Quercetin has neither been confirmed scientifically as a specific therapeutic for any condition nor been approved by any regulatory agency. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved any health claims for quercetin. Nevertheless, the interest in dietary flavonoids has grown after the publication of several epidemiological studies showing an inverse correlation between dietary consumption of flavonols and flavones and reduced incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. In recent years, a large amount of experimental and some clinical data have accumulated regarding the effects of flavonoids on the endothelium under physiological and pathological conditions. The meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies concluded that the individuals in the top third of dietary flavonol intake are associated with a reduced risk of mortality from coronary heart disease as compared with those in the bottom third, after adjustment for known risk factors and other dietary components. A limited number of intervention studies with flavonoids and flavonoid containing foods and extracts has been performed in several pathological conditions. (1)
Compound Type
  • Antioxidant
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-(3,4-Dihydroxy-phenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-chromen-4-one
3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavan-3-ol
3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavon-3-ol
3,3',4',5,7-Pentahydroxyflavone
3,4',5,5',7-Pentahydroxy-Flavone
3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxyflavone
3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-on
Flavin meletin
Meletin
Quercetin dihydrate
Quercetol
Quertin
Sophoretin
Xanthaurine
Chemical FormulaC15H10O7
Average Molecular Mass302.236 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass302.043 g/mol
CAS Registry Number117-39-5
IUPAC Name2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one
Traditional Namequercetin
SMILESOC1=CC(O)=C2C(OC(=C(O)C2=O)C2=CC(O)=C(O)C=C2)=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C15H10O7/c16-7-4-10(19)12-11(5-7)22-15(14(21)13(12)20)6-1-2-8(17)9(18)3-6/h1-5,16-19,21H
InChI KeyInChIKey=REFJWTPEDVJJIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavonols. Flavonols are compounds that contain a flavone (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) backbone carrying a hydroxyl group at the 3-position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassFlavonoids
Sub ClassFlavones
Direct ParentFlavonols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-hydroxyflavone
  • 3'-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 3-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 4'-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 5-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 7-hydroxyflavonoid
  • Hydroxyflavonoid
  • Chromone
  • Benzopyran
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Catechol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Pyranone
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Pyran
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point316.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility60 mg/L (at 16°C)
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.26 g/LALOGPS
logP1.81ALOGPS
logP2.16ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area127.45 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity76.86 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability28.54 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0bt9-2611390000-f8e98c928a7ed82acda4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0bt9-2611390000-f8e98c928a7ed82acda4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0079-0591000000-2a146657da898ec9322eJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00l2-2093078000-1de46637305246feffd2JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-1907000000-6f36df2733dadae380c2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0309000000-976a99c106ceca16d73bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0pi0-1900000000-b2e286366d41e47dd8fcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0209000000-e891863ec110aeb660b0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-1907000000-a59602c09f66e9656068JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF (LCMS-IT-TOF) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0019000000-eb14ec62fc2fb2f1da88JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF (LCMS-IT-TOF) , Negativesplash10-0ufr-0910000000-0730bca525c17aac75c5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0030290000-06238e4a98a4daad3265JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0udi-0039008002-9df3edfb34deb15f8474JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0039008002-9df3edfb34deb15f8474JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0uka-0193000000-3325ca1a080730a9c0bfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-0690000000-fc73e696aa7dda4ed068JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-0690000000-fc73e696aa7dda4ed068JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-0690000000-fc73e696aa7dda4ed068JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 50V, Negativesplash10-00di-0690000000-fc73e696aa7dda4ed068JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0690000000-fc73e696aa7dda4ed068JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-00di-0690000000-fc73e696aa7dda4ed068JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, Negativesplash10-0kmi-0920000000-2cd49ad40f2f08fee3abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0090000000-6e7d9bd766aeac1e8423JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0udi-0039008002-9df3edfb34deb15f8474JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0f6t-0095000000-263e67f066235717bcedJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0uka-0193000000-3325ca1a080730a9c0bfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-0690000000-fc73e696aa7dda4ed068JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0uk9-0930000000-363b1bf4e9a6499fb535JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-845f3e731d2cccac16f9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityQuercetin is a specific quinone reductase 2 (QR2) inhibitor, an enzyme (along with the human QR1 homolog) which catalyzes metabolism of toxic quinolines. Inhibition of QR2 in plasmodium may potentially cause lethal oxidative stress. The inhibition of antioxidant activity in plasmodium may contribute to killing the malaria causing parasites.
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (2)
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB04216
HMDB IDHMDB05794
PubChem Compound ID5280343
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL50
ChemSpider ID4444051
KEGG IDC00389
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16243
BioCyc ID3457-TETRAHYDROXY-3-METHOXYFLAVONE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDQUE
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkQuercetin
References
Synthesis Reference

Miguel M. Taya, Dionisio M. Aedo, Rene Ricard, “Quercetin pentamethyl carbamate and a process for its preparation.” U.S. Patent US4202825, issued October, 1975.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Perez-Vizcaino F, Duarte J, Andriantsitohaina R: Endothelial function and cardiovascular disease: effects of quercetin and wine polyphenols. Free Radic Res. 2006 Oct;40(10):1054-65. [17015250 ]
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase found in hematopoietic cells that transmits signals from cell surface receptors and plays an important role in the regulation of innate immune responses, including neutrophil, monocyte, macrophage and mast cell functions, phagocytosis, cell survival and proliferation, cell adhesion and migration. Acts downstream of receptors that bind the Fc region of immunoglobulins, such as FCGR1A and FCGR2A, but also CSF3R, PLAUR, the receptors for IFNG, IL2, IL6 and IL8, and integrins, such as ITGB1 and ITGB2. During the phagocytic process, mediates mobilization of secretory lysosomes, degranulation, and activation of NADPH oxidase to bring about the respiratory burst. Plays a role in the release of inflammatory molecules. Promotes reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and actin polymerization, formation of podosomes and cell protrusions. Inhibits TP73-mediated transcription activation and TP73-mediated apoptosis. Phosphorylates CBL in response to activation of immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptors. Phosphorylates ADAM15, BCR, ELMO1, FCGR2A, GAB1, GAB2, RAPGEF1, STAT5B, TP73, VAV1 and WAS.
Gene Name:
HCK
Uniprot ID:
P08631
Molecular Weight:
59599.355 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Hydro-lyase activity
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA (HIBYL-CoA), a saline catabolite. Has high activity toward isobutyryl-CoA. Could be an isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase that functions in valine catabolism. Also hydrolyzes 3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
HIBCH
Uniprot ID:
Q6NVY1
Molecular Weight:
43481.935 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Subunits alpha and beta form the catalytic core in F(1). Rotation of the central stalk against the surrounding alpha(3)beta(3) subunits leads to hydrolysis of ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the beta subunits. Subunit alpha does not bear the catalytic high-affinity ATP-binding sites (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP5A1
Uniprot ID:
P25705
Molecular Weight:
59750.06 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Subunits alpha and beta form the catalytic core in F(1). Rotation of the central stalk against the surrounding alpha(3)beta(3) subunits leads to hydrolysis of ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the beta subunits.
Gene Name:
ATP5B
Uniprot ID:
P06576
Molecular Weight:
56559.42 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Part of the complex F(1) domain and the central stalk which is part of the complex rotary element. The gamma subunit protrudes into the catalytic domain formed of alpha(3)beta(3). Rotation of the central stalk against the surrounding alpha(3)beta(3) subunits leads to hydrolysis of ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the beta subunits.
Gene Name:
ATP5C1
Uniprot ID:
P36542
Molecular Weight:
32995.665 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) that phosphorylates PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, motility and morphology. Links G-protein coupled receptor activation to PIP3 production. Involved in immune, inflammatory and allergic responses. Modulates leukocyte chemotaxis to inflammatory sites and in response to chemoattractant agents. May control leukocyte polarization and migration by regulating the spatial accumulation of PIP3 and by regulating the organization of F-actin formation and integrin-based adhesion at the leading edge. Controls motility of dendritic cells. Together with PIK3CD is involved in natural killer (NK) cell development and migration towards the sites of inflammation. Participates in T-lymphocyte migration. Regulates T-lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Together with PIK3CD participates in T-lymphocyte development. Required for B-lymphocyte development and signaling. Together with PIK3CD participates in neutrophil respiratory burst. Together with PIK3CD is involved in neutrophil chemotaxis and extravasation. Together with PIK3CB promotes platelet aggregation and thrombosis. Regulates alpha-IIb/beta-3 integrins (ITGA2B/ ITGB3) adhesive function in platelets downstream of P2Y12 through a lipid kinase activity-independent mechanism. May have also a lipid kinase activity-dependent function in platelet aggregation. Involved in endothelial progenitor cell migration. Negative regulator of cardiac contractility. Modulates cardiac contractility by anchoring protein kinase A (PKA) and PDE3B activation, reducing cAMP levels. Regulates cardiac contractility also by promoting beta-adrenergic receptor internalization by binding to ADRBK1 and by non-muscle tropomyosin phosphorylation. Also has serine/threonine protein kinase activity: both lipid and protein kinase activities are required for beta-adrenergic receptor endocytosis. May also have a scaffolding role in modulating cardiac contractility. Contributes to cardiac hypertrophy under pathological stress. Through simultaneous binding of PDE3B to RAPGEF3 and PIK3R6 is assembled in a signaling complex in which the PI3K gamma complex is activated by RAPGEF3 and which is involved in angiogenesis.
Gene Name:
PIK3CG
Uniprot ID:
P48736
Molecular Weight:
126452.625 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Phosphorylates myosin light chains (By similarity). Acts as a positive regulator of apoptosis.
Gene Name:
STK17B
Uniprot ID:
O94768
Molecular Weight:
42343.595 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Proto-oncogene with serine/threonine kinase activity involved in cell survival and cell proliferation and thus providing a selective advantage in tumorigenesis. Exerts its oncogenic activity through: the regulation of MYC transcriptional activity, the regulation of cell cycle progression and by phosphorylation and inhibition of proapoptotic proteins (BAD, MAP3K5, FOXO3). Phosphorylation of MYC leads to an increase of MYC protein stability and thereby an increase of transcriptional activity. The stabilization of MYC exerted by PIM1 might explain partly the strong synergism between these two oncogenes in tumorigenesis. Mediates survival signaling through phosphorylation of BAD, which induces release of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-X(L)/BCL2L1. Phosphorylation of MAP3K5, an other proapoptotic protein, by PIM1, significantly decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity and inhibits MAP3K5-mediated phosphorylation of JNK and JNK/p38MAPK subsequently reducing caspase-3 activation and cell apoptosis. Stimulates cell cycle progression at the G1-S and G2-M transitions by phosphorylation of CDC25A and CDC25C. Phosphorylation of CDKN1A, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1, results in the relocation of CDKN1A to the cytoplasm and enhanced CDKN1A protein stability. Promote cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis by down-regulating expression of a regulator of cell cycle progression, CDKN1B, at both transcriptional and post-translational levels. Phosphorylation of CDKN1B,induces 14-3-3-proteins binding, nuclear export and proteasome-dependent degradation. May affect the structure or silencing of chromatin by phosphorylating HP1 gamma/CBX3. Acts also as a regulator of homing and migration of bone marrow cells involving functional interaction with the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis.
Gene Name:
PIM1
Uniprot ID:
P11309
Molecular Weight:
45411.905 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Udp-glycosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT3A1
Uniprot ID:
Q6NUS8
Molecular Weight:
59150.34 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), EIF2B, CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC, AXIN1, DPYSL2/CRMP2, JUN, NFATC1/NFATC, MAPT/TAU and MACF1. Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates. In skeletal muscle, contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis. May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors. Regulates protein synthesis by controlling the activity of initiation factor 2B (EIF2BE/EIF2B5) in the same manner as glycogen synthase. In Wnt signaling, GSK3B forms a multimeric complex with APC, AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin and phosphorylates the N-terminus of CTNNB1 leading to its degradation mediated by ubiquitin/proteasomes. Phosphorylates JUN at sites proximal to its DNA-binding domain, thereby reducing its affinity for DNA. Phosphorylates NFATC1/NFATC on conserved serine residues promoting NFATC1/NFATC nuclear export, shutting off NFATC1/NFATC gene regulation, and thereby opposing the action of calcineurin. Phosphorylates MAPT/TAU on 'Thr-548', decreasing significantly MAPT/TAU ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. MAPT/TAU is the principal component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease. Plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. Phosphorylates MACF1, inhibiting its binding to microtubules which is critical for its role in bulge stem cell migration and skin wound repair. Probably regulates NF-kappa-B (NFKB1) at the transcriptional level and is required for the NF-kappa-B-mediated anti-apoptotic response to TNF-alpha (TNF/TNFA). Negatively regulates replication in pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in apoptosis, loss of beta-cells and diabetes. Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation. Phosphorylates MUC1 in breast cancer cells, decreasing the interaction of MUC1 with CTNNB1/beta-catenin. Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth. Phosphorylates MARK2, leading to inhibit its activity. Phosphorylates SIK1 at 'Thr-182', leading to sustain its activity. Phosphorylates ZC3HAV1 which enhances its antiviral activity. Phosphorylates SNAI1, leading to its BTRC-triggered ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates SFPQ at 'Thr-687' upon T-cell activation. Phosphorylates NR1D1 st 'Ser-55' and 'Ser-59' and stabilizes it by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. Regulates the circadian clock via phosphorylation of the major clock components including ARNTL/BMAL1, CLOCK and PER2. Phosphorylates CLOCK AT 'Ser-427' and targets it for proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates ARNTL/BMAL1 at 'Ser-17' and 'Ser-21' and primes it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates OGT at 'Ser-3' or 'Ser-4' which positively regulates its activity. Phosphorylates MYCN in neuroblastoma cells which may promote its degradation (PubMed:24391509).
Gene Name:
GSK3B
Uniprot ID:
P49841
Molecular Weight:
46743.865 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.0582 uMNVS_ENZ_hGSK3bNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.86 uMOT_ER_ERbERb_1440Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID:
P29274
Molecular Weight:
44706.925 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.68 uMNVS_GPCR_hAdoRA2aNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]