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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:16:53 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4793
Identification
Common NameRhodamine 6g
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionRhodamine 6G is a highly fluorescent Rhodamine family dye. It is often used as a tracer dye within water to determine the rate and direction of flow and transport. Rhodamine dyes fluoresce and can thus be detected easily and inexpensively with instruments called fluorometers. Rhodamine dyes are used extensively in biotechnology applications such as fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and ELISA.
Compound Type
  • Dye
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Household Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC28H31N2O3
Average Molecular Mass443.557 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass443.233 g/mol
CAS Registry Number989-38-8
IUPAC NameN-[(3E)-9-[2-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-6-(ethylamino)-2,7-dimethyl-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene]ethan-1-aminium
Traditional NameN-[(3E)-9-[2-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-6-(ethylamino)-2,7-dimethylxanthen-3-ylidene]ethanaminium
SMILESCC[NH2+]C1=CC2=C(C=C1C)C(C1=CC=CC=C1C(=O)OCC)=C1C=C(C)\C(C=C1O2)=N\CC
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C28H30N2O3/c1-6-29-23-15-25-21(13-17(23)4)27(19-11-9-10-12-20(19)28(31)32-8-3)22-14-18(5)24(30-7-2)16-26(22)33-25/h9-16,29H,6-8H2,1-5H3/p+1/b30-24+
InChI KeyInChIKey=IWWWBRIIGAXLCJ-BGABXYSRSA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthenes. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a xanthene moiety, which consists of two benzene rings joined to each other by a pyran ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzopyrans
Sub Class1-benzopyrans
Direct ParentXanthenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthene
  • Benzoate ester
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzoyl
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary ketimine
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility2E+004 mg/L
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00031 g/LALOGPS
logP2.62ALOGPS
logP5.35ChemAxon
logS-6.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.13ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area61.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity158.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability52.11 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0000900000-6cad1f23202d22fbdb8dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0007-2000900000-396e2e70c4974a81e6e3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-9004400000-865f439503de844a9374JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0000900000-8e9db0a02643cc56f650JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-1000900000-4bea064cecce73c11b87JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0007-9001300000-73baf6c45d0c04619b1dJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (1)
Uses/SourcesIt is often used as a tracer dye within water to determine the rate and direction of flow and transport. Rhodamine dyes fluoresce and can thus be detected easily and inexpensively with instruments called fluorometers. Rhodamine dyes are used extensively in biotechnology applications such as fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and ELISA.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03825
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID65211
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID58709
KEGG IDC11177
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID52672
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4793.pdf
General References
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.0286 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
AC504.48 uMNVS_NR_hERNovascreen
AC500.0674 uMTox21_ERa_BLA_Antagonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
AC500.147 uMTox21_ERa_LUC_BG1_AntagonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.0808 uMTox21_AR_BLA_Antagonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
AC500.0918 uMTox21_AR_LUC_MDAKB2_AntagonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.0945 uMTox21_Aromatase_InhibitionTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii distal enhancer sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
Transcription activator that binds to antioxidant response (ARE) elements in the promoter regions of target genes. Important for the coordinated up-regulation of genes in response to oxidative stress. May be involved in the transcriptional activation of genes of the beta-globin cluster by mediating enhancer activity of hypersensitive site 2 of the beta-globin locus control region.
Gene Name:
NFE2L2
Uniprot ID:
Q16236
Molecular Weight:
67825.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.173 uMATG_NRF2_ARE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.276 uMNVS_MP_hPBRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon growth hormone (GH) stimulation and could reveal an essential role of hepatic GR in the control of body growth. Involved in chromatin remodeling. May play a negative role in adipogenesis through the regulation of lipolytic and antilipogenic genes expression.
Gene Name:
NR3C1
Uniprot ID:
P04150
Molecular Weight:
85658.57 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.93 uMTox21_GR_BLA_Antagonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]