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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:16:58 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4795
Identification
Common NameKaempferol
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionKaempferol is a natural flavonoid which has been isolated from Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit, and other plant sources. Kaempferol is a yellow crystalline solid with a melting point of 276-278 degree centigrade. It is slightly soluble in water, and well soluble in hot ethanol and diethyl ether.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
3,4',5,7-Tetrahydroxy-Flavone (7CI,8CI)
3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one
Kampferol
Kampherol
Populnetin
Rhamnolutein
Trifolitin
Chemical FormulaC15H10O6
Average Molecular Mass286.236 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass286.048 g/mol
CAS Registry Number520-18-3
IUPAC Name3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one
Traditional Namekaempferol
SMILESOC1=CC=C(C=C1)C1=C(O)C(=O)C2=C(O)C=C(O)C=C2O1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C15H10O6/c16-8-3-1-7(2-4-8)15-14(20)13(19)12-10(18)5-9(17)6-11(12)21-15/h1-6,16-18,20H
InChI KeyInChIKey=IYRMWMYZSQPJKC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavonols. Flavonols are compounds that contain a flavone (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) backbone carrying a hydroxyl group at the 3-position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassFlavonoids
Sub ClassFlavones
Direct ParentFlavonols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-hydroxyflavone
  • 3-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 4'-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 5-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 7-hydroxyflavonoid
  • Hydroxyflavonoid
  • Chromone
  • Benzopyran
  • 1-benzopyran
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Pyranone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Pyran
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Polyol
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point277°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.18 g/LALOGPS
logP1.99ALOGPS
logP2.46ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area107.22 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity74.88 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability27.59 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0079-1963700000-1d3775db7c536f63b70cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0bt9-0000290000-4a7068686e907a319864JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-4290000000-ccb984ce16e32c25d878JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0079-1963700000-1d3775db7c536f63b70cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0bt9-0000290000-4a7068686e907a319864JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-052r-0590000000-3bfd778520b9c39bc4baJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0mc0-2150190000-3a2826fb2ce8460675bcJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0090000000-f0101bac1cb6491794f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0690000000-3afcadc746823bc03ebdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0v4i-5900000000-6a870572cf8a486dd6b7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-06-H) , Positivesplash10-000i-4290000000-75bfe61cc0a42797e86aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 5V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-ead9f201b8c5b6b6e46eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-000i-0190000000-2bc892de84e0225a49cfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-052u-1930000000-08779ff26cd586d78e41JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0udr-0920000000-97d144af795812440c46JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-000i-0290000000-5573e7fd91cf25805a11JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-014s-2920000000-397e01f2d2cf07025409JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-014i-1920000000-891ca58b63b857f31594JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF (LCMS-IT-TOF) , Negativesplash10-0079-0090040000-5111d04af3f3d3e053c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-0950000000-580cab3c0e471a3f4e00JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-000i-0950000000-580cab3c0e471a3f4e00JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 50V, Negativesplash10-066r-0930000000-f40d69c592d60004cae0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-066r-0930000000-f40d69c592d60004cae0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-0950000000-580cab3c0e471a3f4e00JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-000i-0091000000-295f056c177e6e49fb6bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 50V, Negativesplash10-066r-0930000000-f40d69c592d60004cae0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-0d8eaf63d3860cdc1cbfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-3969010f013a967001daJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0gbi-6790000000-5668e7d87a859b519804JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-4cba2efdae1d7d094e17JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0190000000-489c309b159fce3df0d6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-4950000000-9d8aab7149b59126c14aJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (1)
Uses/SourcesKaempferol is a natural flavonoid which has been isolated from Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit, and other plant sources.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01852
HMDB IDHMDB05801
PubChem Compound ID5280863
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL150
ChemSpider ID4444395
KEGG IDC05903
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID28499
BioCyc IDCPD-8034
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDKMP
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia Linkkaempferol
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Udp-glycosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT3A1
Uniprot ID:
Q6NUS8
Molecular Weight:
59150.34 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.35 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
AC505.5 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
AC501.87 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
AC500.214 uMNVS_NR_hERNovascreen
AC504.35 uMOT_ER_ERaERa_1440Odyssey Thera
AC509.45 uMTox21_ERa_LUC_BG1_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform A: inactive in stimulating c-Src/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone.
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98979.96 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.345 uMNVS_NR_hPRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.83 uMOT_ER_ERaERb_1440Odyssey Thera
AC502.49 uMOT_ER_ERbERb_1440Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]