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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:18:11 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4827
Identification
Common NameForskolin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPotent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant Coleus forskohlii. Has antihypertensive, positive ionotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC22H34O7
Average Molecular Mass410.501 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass410.230 g/mol
CAS Registry Number64657-11-0 and 66575-29-9
IUPAC Name(3R,4aR,5S,6S,6aS,10S,10aR,10bS)-3-ethenyl-6,10,10b-trihydroxy-3,4a,7,7,10a-pentamethyl-1-oxo-dodecahydro-1H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran-5-yl acetate
Traditional Nameforskolin
SMILES[H][C@]1(O)CCC(C)(C)[C@]2([H])[C@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(OC(C)=O)[C@@]3(C)O[C@](C)(CC(=O)[C@]3(O)[C@@]12C)C=C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C22H34O7/c1-8-19(5)11-14(25)22(27)20(6)13(24)9-10-18(3,4)16(20)15(26)17(28-12(2)23)21(22,7)29-19/h8,13,15-17,24,26-27H,1,9-11H2,2-7H3/t13-,15-,16-,17-,19-,20-,21+,22-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=OHCQJHSOBUTRHG-KGGHGJDLSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triterpenoids. These are terpene molecules containing six isoprene units.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTriterpenoids
Direct ParentTriterpenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Polycyclic triterpenoid
  • Triterpenoid
  • Naphthopyran
  • Naphthalene
  • Pyran
  • Oxane
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.1 g/LALOGPS
logP1.28ALOGPS
logP1.36ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.57ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area113.29 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity104.47 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability43.33 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0a4i-0001900000-7d8f5636999f6b276cd0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0k92-0349200000-7e9f95896c6366092dc4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0zgi-0895000000-d5ffd6e415b7071865cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0zfr-0941000000-0d4b697cc719902e9cd2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01ox-1009200000-20fab1621372984846a1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0uxu-2009000000-f130396db84635f9cd93JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0gbi-9101000000-237fd86ca77bf89a6101JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-3009600000-51bddbda26cd550ea75aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4j-6139100000-fb3680fca9d4a76753d9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0aor-9000000000-894a6ba44b323c93d1b5JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02587
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID47936
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID43607
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID42471
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkForskolin
References
Synthesis Reference

Emiko Yamasaki, Takaaki Ohkuma, “Lyophilized preparation of 6-(3-dimethylaminopropionyl)forskolin.” U.S. Patent US5051132, issued June, 1974.

MSDST3D4827.pdf
General ReferencesNot Available
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of the signaling molecule cAMP in response to G-protein signaling (PubMed:15385642). Down-stream signaling cascades mediate changes in gene expression patterns and lead to increased IL6 production. Functions in signaling cascades downstream of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY2
Uniprot ID:
Q08462
Molecular Weight:
123602.25 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of the signaling molecule cAMP in response to G-protein signaling (PubMed:15385642, PubMed:26206488, PubMed:24700542). Mediates signaling downstream of ADRB1 (PubMed:24700542). Regulates the increase of free cytosolic Ca(2+) in response to increased blood glucose levels and contributes to the regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent insulin secretion (PubMed:24740569).
Gene Name:
ADCY5
Uniprot ID:
O95622
Molecular Weight:
138906.37 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) function as transducers in numerous signaling pathways controlled by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (PubMed:17110384). Signaling involves the activation of adenylyl cyclases, resulting in increased levels of the signaling molecule cAMP (PubMed:26206488, PubMed:8702665). GNAS functions downstream of several GPCRs, including beta-adrenergic receptors (PubMed:21488135). Stimulates the Ras signaling pathway via RAPGEF2 (PubMed:12391161).
Gene Name:
GNAS
Uniprot ID:
P63092
Molecular Weight:
45664.205 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Atp binding
Specific Function:
Involved in DNA damage response. Involved in a RAD9A-related damage checkpoint, a pathway that is important in determining whether DNA damage is compatible with cell survival or whether it requires cell elimination by apoptosis. Modulates the RAD9A interaction with BCL2 and thereby induces DNA damages-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ATAD5
Uniprot ID:
Q96QE3
Molecular Weight:
207568.185 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.0483 uMTox21_ELG1_LUC_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.204 uMTox21_Aromatase_InhibitionTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds DNA as a monomer to ROR response elements (RORE) containing a single core motif half-site 5'-AGGTCA-3' preceded by a short A-T-rich sequence. Considered to have intrinsic transcriptional activity, have some natural ligands such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and other retinoids which act as inverse agonists repressing the transcriptional activity. Required for normal postnatal development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Modulates rod photoreceptors differentiation at least by inducing the transcription factor NRL-mediated pathway. In cone photoreceptor cells, regulates transcription of OPN1SW. Involved in the regulation of the period length and stability of the circadian rhythm. May control cytoarchitectural patterning of neocortical neurons during development. May act in a dose-dependent manner to regulate barrel formation upon innervation of layer IV neurons by thalamocortical axons. May play a role in the suppression of osteoblastic differentiation through the inhibition of RUNX2 transcriptional activity (By similarity).Isoform 1 is critical for hindlimb motor control and for the differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells in the retina. Regulates the expression of PTF1A synergistically with FOXN4 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RORB
Uniprot ID:
Q92753
Molecular Weight:
53219.385 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.8 uMATG_RORb_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.
Gene Name:
PPARD
Uniprot ID:
Q03181
Molecular Weight:
49902.99 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.862 uMATG_PPARd_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor. Binds preferentially to double-stranded oligonucleotide direct repeats having the consensus half-site sequence 5'-AGGTCA-3' and 4-nt spacing (DR-4). Regulates cholesterol uptake through MYLIP-dependent ubiquitination of LDLR, VLDLR and LRP8; DLDLR and LRP8. Interplays functionally with RORA for the regulation of genes involved in liver metabolism (By similarity). Exhibits a ligand-dependent transcriptional activation activity (PubMed:25661920).
Gene Name:
NR1H2
Uniprot ID:
P55055
Molecular Weight:
50973.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.19 uMATG_DR4_LXR_CISAttagene
AC501.05 uMATG_LXRb_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.03 uMATG_PXR_TRANSAttagene
AC501.07 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.16 uMTox21_AR_LUC_MDAKB2_AntagonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) through the induction of NR0B2 or FGF19 expression, via two distinct mechanisms. Activates the intestinal bile acid-binding protein (IBABP). Activates the transcription of bile salt export pump ABCB11 by directly recruiting histone methyltransferase CARM1 to this locus.
Gene Name:
NR1H4
Uniprot ID:
Q96RI1
Molecular Weight:
55913.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.76 uMATG_IR1_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.03 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
AC502.5 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Transcriptionally controlled transcription factor. Binds to DNA sites required for the transcription of alpha 1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein CIII, transthyretin genes and HNF1-alpha. May be essential for development of the liver, kidney and intestine.
Gene Name:
HNF4A
Uniprot ID:
P41235
Molecular Weight:
52784.205 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.17 uMATG_HNF4a_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B/WSTF which mediates the interaction with acetylated histones, an essential step for VDR-promoter association. Plays a central role in calcium homeostasis.
Gene Name:
VDR
Uniprot ID:
P11473
Molecular Weight:
48288.64 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.63 uMATG_VDRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound transcription factor that plays a role in the unfolded protein response (UPR). Involved in cell proliferation and migration, tumor suppression and inflammatory gene expression. Plays also a role in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virus protein expression and in the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) latent infection and reactivation from latency. Isoform 2 plays a role in the unfolded protein response (UPR). Isoform 2 acts as a positive regulator of LKN-1/CCL15-induced chemotaxis signaling of leukocyte cell migration. Isoform 2 may play a role as a cellular tumor suppressor that is targeted by the hepatitis C virus (HSV) core protein. Isoform 2 represses the VP16-mediated transactivation of immediate early genes of the HSV-1 virus by sequestring host cell factor-1 HCFC1 in the ER membrane of sensory neurons, thereby preventing the initiation of the replicative cascade leading to latent infection. Isoform 3 functions as a negative transcriptional regulator in ligand-induced transcriptional activation of the glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 by recruiting and activating histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC6). Isoform 3 decreases the acetylation level of histone H4. Isoform 3 does not promote the chemotactic activity of leukocyte cells.Processed cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3: acts as a transcription factor that activates unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Promotes cell survival against ER stress-induced apoptotic cell death during UPR. Activates transcription from CRE and C/EBP-containing reporter genes. Induces transcriptional activation of chemokine receptors. Activates transcription of genes required for reactivation of the latent HSV-1 virus. Down-regulates Tat-dependent transcription of the HIV-1 LTR by interacting with HIV-1 Tat. It's transcriptional activity is inhibited by CREBZF in a HCFC1-dependent manner, by the viral transactivator protein VP16 and by the HCV core protein. Binds DNA to the cAMP response element (CRE) (consensus: 5'-GTGACGT[AG][AG]-3') and C/EBP sequences present in many viral and cellular promoters. Binds to the unfolded protein respons element (UPRE) consensus sequences sites. Binds DNA to the 5'-CCAC[GA]-3'half of ERSE II (5'-ATTGG-N-CCACG-3'). Associates with chromatin to the HERPUD1 promoter.
Gene Name:
CREB3
Uniprot ID:
O43889
Molecular Weight:
43916.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.99 uMATG_CRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (By similarity). Specifically binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA).
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular Weight:
56921.38 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.11 uMATG_RXRb_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.26 uMATG_PPARg_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]