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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:22:52 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:27:00 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4928
Identification
Common NameLinoleic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionLinoleic acid is a doubly unsaturated fatty acid, also known as an omega-6 fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. In this particular polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), the first double bond is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6). Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition because it cannot be synthesized by humans. It is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (via arachidonic acid) and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed).
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoate
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
(Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoate
(Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
9-cis,12-cis-Linoleate
9-cis,12-cis-Linoleic acid
9Z,12Z-Linoleate
9Z,12Z-Linoleic acid
9Z,12Z-Octadecadienoate
9Z,12Z-Octadecadienoic acid
All-cis-9,12-Octadecadienoate
All-cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
cis,cis-Linoleate
cis,cis-Linoleic acid
cis-9,cis-12-Octadecadienoate
cis-9,cis-12-Octadecadienoic acid
cis-D9,12-Octadecadienoate
cis-D9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
Emersol 315
Extra Linoleic 90
Linolate
Linoleate
Linolic acid
Polylin 515
Unifac 6550
Chemical FormulaC18H32O2
Average Molecular Mass280.446 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass280.240 g/mol
CAS Registry Number60-33-3
IUPAC Name(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
Traditional Namelinoleic
SMILES[H]\C(CCCCC)=C(/[H])C\C([H])=C(\[H])CCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C18H32O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20/h6-7,9-10H,2-5,8,11-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20)/b7-6-,10-9-
InChI KeyInChIKey=OYHQOLUKZRVURQ-HZJYTTRNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as lineolic acids and derivatives. These are derivatives of lineolic acid. Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC double bonds at the 9- and 12-positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassLineolic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentLineolic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Octadecanoid
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid MetabolismSMP00018 map00592
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-8.5 °C
Boiling Point230°C
SolubilityNot Available
LogP7.05
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00015 g/LALOGPS
logP7.06ALOGPS
logP6.42ChemAxon
logS-6.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity88.52 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability35.86 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-000t-7900000000-b6ee03c4800464c37471JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-00vi-9300000000-c92dac639ced59eb5dbeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-003s-9700000000-77e67d7b1a161e6ecfa6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000t-7900000000-b6ee03c4800464c37471JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00vi-9300000000-c92dac639ced59eb5dbeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-003s-9700000000-77e67d7b1a161e6ecfa6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0007-9750000000-50d69948d56dd2ba6e42JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0079-9631000000-cc93c24bbf14d81ae9b6JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f89-0190000000-2be9501b1d4a9fcbd1c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uk9-0790000000-7f6e35a591f977bc488eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0090000000-c56edc2bbf9d6752aec5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - FAB-EBEB (JMS-HX/HX 110A, JEOL) , Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-baf4579e26c6b393d391JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-815c1682b2c59ba96f10JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-3406b2b2d5756807e1cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-2fb4975278fa4d118f43JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9380000000-37f833673c248405c8efJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-7d34ed5900a17ffe3f9bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090010000-f8df6099e003402f2566JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-004i-0091021000-0e44779958d5744d873bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091021000-0e44779958d5744d873bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091021000-0e44779958d5744d873bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091021000-0e44779958d5744d873bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090010000-f8df6099e003402f2566JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-004i-0091021000-0e44779958d5744d873bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-adbf36f0a17c33ac33f8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-2747c83af78732eb6e16JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-a0415b1cb63b4562b40eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0090000000-8bdf8d54a29f73494242JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0239-4590000000-e5ee57553b064eae2efeJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00rf-9830000000-b26ba057a2b4d135b478JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-f1e9e4b543f7d4f48bf8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01ti-0090000000-665523c6142ff4e39c96JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9240000000-dca36a25ad7519d500c3JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-015a-9200000000-a193c27810bedf93c498JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00673
PubChem Compound ID5280450
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4444105
KEGG IDC01595
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17351
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDD019787
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDEIC
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLinoleic acid
References
Synthesis ReferenceWalborsky, Harry M.; Davis, Robert H.; Howton, David R. A total synthesis of linoleic acid. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1951), 73 2590-4.
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Schurer NY, Stremmel W, Grundmann JU, Schliep V, Kleinert H, Bass NM, Williams ML: Evidence for a novel keratinocyte fatty acid uptake mechanism with preference for linoleic acid: comparison of oleic and linoleic acid uptake by cultured human keratinocytes, fibroblasts and a human hepatoma cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Feb 10;1211(1):51-60. [8123682 ]
  2. Valianpour F, Wanders RJ, Overmars H, Vaz FM, Barth PG, van Gennip AH: Linoleic acid supplementation of Barth syndrome fibroblasts restores cardiolipin levels: implications for treatment. J Lipid Res. 2003 Mar;44(3):560-6. Epub 2002 Dec 16. [12562862 ]
  3. Horrobin DF: Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):367S-72S. [10617999 ]
  4. Imokawa G, Yada Y, Higuchi K, Okuda M, Ohashi Y, Kawamata A: Pseudo-acylceramide with linoleic acid produces selective recovery of diminished cutaneous barrier function in essential fatty acid-deficient rats and has an inhibitory effect on epidermal hyperplasia. J Clin Invest. 1994 Jul;94(1):89-96. [8040295 ]
  5. Kawajiri H, Hsi LC, Kamitani H, Ikawa H, Geller M, Ward T, Eling TE, Glasgow WC: Arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolism in mouse intestinal tissue: evidence for novel lipoxygenase activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002 Feb 1;398(1):51-60. [11811948 ]
  6. Iso H, Sato S, Umemura U, Kudo M, Koike K, Kitamura A, Imano H, Okamura T, Naito Y, Shimamoto T: Linoleic acid, other fatty acids, and the risk of stroke. Stroke. 2002 Aug;33(8):2086-93. [12154268 ]
  7. Seidel D, Heipertz R, Weisner B: Cerebrospinal fluid lipids in demyelinating disease. II. Linoleic acid as an index of impaired blood-CSF barrier. J Neurol. 1980 Jan;222(3):177-82. [6153705 ]
  8. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [8412012 ]
  9. Salo P, Seppanen-Laakso T, Laakso I, Seppanen R, Niinikoski H, Viikari J, Simell O: Low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol diet in 3-year-old children: effect on intake and composition of trans fatty acids and other fatty acids in serum phospholipid fraction-The STRIP study. Special Turku coronary Risk factor Intervention Project for children. J Pediatr. 2000 Jan;136(1):46-52. [10636973 ]
  10. Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Jacobsen BK, Bjerve KS: Plasma saturated and linoleic fatty acids are independently associated with blood pressure. Hypertension. 1999 Sep;34(3):478-83. [10489397 ]
  11. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.53 uMNVS_NR_hPPARgNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
  2. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Murakami K, Ide T, Suzuki M, Mochizuki T, Kadowaki T: Evidence for direct binding of fatty acids and eicosanoids to human peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jul 14;260(3):609-13. [10403814 ]
  2. Downie MM, Sanders DA, Maier LM, Stock DM, Kealey T: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and farnesoid X receptor ligands differentially regulate sebaceous differentiation in human sebaceous gland organ cultures in vitro. Br J Dermatol. 2004 Oct;151(4):766-75. [15491415 ]
  3. Vanden Heuvel JP, Thompson JT, Frame SR, Gillies PJ: Differential activation of nuclear receptors by perfluorinated fatty acid analogs and natural fatty acids: a comparison of human, mouse, and rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, liver X receptor-beta, and retinoid X receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):476-89. Epub 2006 May 26. [16731579 ]
  4. Cho MC, Lee S, Choi HS, Yang Y, Tae Hong J, Kim SJ, Yoon DY: Optimization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to screen ligand of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009;31(3):459-67. doi: 10.1080/08923970902785246. [19263263 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.
Gene Name:
PPARD
Uniprot ID:
Q03181
Molecular Weight:
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Vanden Heuvel JP, Thompson JT, Frame SR, Gillies PJ: Differential activation of nuclear receptors by perfluorinated fatty acid analogs and natural fatty acids: a comparison of human, mouse, and rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, liver X receptor-beta, and retinoid X receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):476-89. Epub 2006 May 26. [16731579 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.57 uMNVS_NR_hPXRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.5 uMNVS_MP_hPBRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes.
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular Weight:
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Vanden Heuvel JP, Thompson JT, Frame SR, Gillies PJ: Differential activation of nuclear receptors by perfluorinated fatty acid analogs and natural fatty acids: a comparison of human, mouse, and rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, liver X receptor-beta, and retinoid X receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):476-89. Epub 2006 May 26. [16731579 ]