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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:23:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:27:00 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4932
Identification
Common NameDimethyl dialkyl ammonium chloride
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDimethyl dialkyl ammonium chloride is used as a food additive [EAFUS] ("EAFUS: Everything Added to Food in the United States. [http://www.eafus.com/]"). Dimethyl dialkyl ammonium chloride belongs to the family of Quaternary Ammonium Salts. These are compounds containing positively charged polyatomic ion of the structure NR4+, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group[1]. (Reference: [1] Quaternary ammonium cation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternary_ammonium_cation).
Compound Type
  • Food Additive
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Dialkyldimethylammonium chloride
Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride
Chemical FormulaC35H74N
Average Molecular Mass508.968 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass508.582 g/mol
CAS Registry Number8001-54-5
IUPAC Nameheptadecyl(hexadecyl)dimethylazanium
Traditional Nameheptadecyl(hexadecyl)dimethylazanium
SMILESCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC[N+](C)(C)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C35H74N/c1-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-19-21-23-25-27-29-31-33-35-36(3,4)34-32-30-28-26-24-22-20-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-2/h5-35H2,1-4H3/q+1
InChI KeyInChIKey=VUHVIYBUEGOBMT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetraalkylammonium salts. These are organonitrogen compounds containing a quaternary ammonium substituted with four alkyl chains.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassQuaternary ammonium salts
Direct ParentTetraalkylammonium salts
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.0e-06 g/LALOGPS
logP7.81ALOGPS
logP9.79ChemAxon
logS-8.3ALOGPS
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count31ChemAxon
Refractivity178.67 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability75.04 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-008i-0039700000-09baf5d648a923fb06b4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0024490000-7ccf1c51c2fc2abaebecJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0080-1189710000-4bee777a03d15fd0cea3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0573-2649400000-b19554da0cfd40c067d8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1035950000-8efaea0248ca2366950aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-053r-6079710000-ca2c72f4e459c375b3d2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9110000000-d5ba554bb766078d31ccJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB32229
PubChem Compound ID24832093
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID21242878
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4932.pdf
General References
  1. EAFUS: Everything Added to Food in the United States.
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii distal enhancer sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
Transcription activator that binds to antioxidant response (ARE) elements in the promoter regions of target genes. Important for the coordinated up-regulation of genes in response to oxidative stress. May be involved in the transcriptional activation of genes of the beta-globin cluster by mediating enhancer activity of hypersensitive site 2 of the beta-globin locus control region.
Gene Name:
NFE2L2
Uniprot ID:
Q16236
Molecular Weight:
67825.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.04 uMATG_NRF2_ARE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.31 uMNVS_NR_hPXRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Transforming growth factor beta receptor, pathway-specific cytoplasmic mediator activity
Specific Function:
Transcriptional modulator activated by BMP (bone morphogenetic proteins) type 1 receptor kinase. SMAD1 is a receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD). SMAD1/OAZ1/PSMB4 complex mediates the degradation of the CREBBP/EP300 repressor SNIP1. May act synergistically with SMAD4 and YY1 in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated cardiac-specific gene expression.
Gene Name:
SMAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q15797
Molecular Weight:
52259.72 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.87 uMATG_BRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.22 uMOT_AR_ARSRC1_0480Odyssey Thera
AC506.21 uMOT_AR_ARSRC1_0960Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis. In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner by recruiting chromatin complexes containing KMT2E/MLL5. Mediates retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis.
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular Weight:
50770.805 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.67 uMNVS_NR_hRAR_AntagonistNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]