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Record Information
Creation Date2014-10-02 18:54:58 UTC
Update Date2018-03-21 17:46:14 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4958
Common NameDeoxyadenosine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDeoxyadenosine is a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine. It is composed of adenine attached to a deoxyribose moiety via a N9-glycosidic bond. Deoxyribose differs from ribose by the absence of oxygen in the 3' position of its ribose ring. Deoxyadenosine is a critical component of DNA. When present in sufficiently high levels, deoxyadensoine can act as an immunotoxin and a metabotoxin. An immunotoxin disrupts, limits the function, or destroys immune cells. A metabotoxin is an endogenous metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of deoxyadenosine are associated with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, an inborn error of metabolism. ADA deficiency damages the immune system and causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). People with SCID lack virtually all immune protection from bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are prone to repeated and persistent infections that can be very serious or life-threatening. These infections are often caused by "opportunistic" organisms that ordinarily do not cause illness in people with a normal immune system. The main symptoms of ADA deficiency are pneumonia, chronic diarrhea, and widespread skin rashes. The mechanism by which dATP functions as an immunotoxin is as follows: because deoxyadenosine is a precursor to dATP, a buildup of dATP in cells inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and prevents DNA synthesis, so cells are unable to divide. Since developing T cells and B cells are some of the most mitotically active cells, they are unable to divide and propagate to respond to immune challenges. High levels of deoxyadenosine also lead to an increase in S-adenosylhomocysteine, which is toxic to immature lymphocytes.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
Chemical Structure
Adenine deoxyribonucleoside
Adenine deoxyribose
Adenine-9 2-deoxy-b-D-erythro-Pentofuranoside
Adenine-9 2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-Pentofuranoside
Adenine-9 2-deoxy-beta-delta-erythro-Pentofuranoside
Chemical FormulaC10H13N5O3
Average Molecular Mass251.242 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass251.102 g/mol
CAS Registry Number958-09-8
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol
Traditional Name2-deoxyadenosine
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H13N5O3/c11-9-8-10(13-3-12-9)15(4-14-8)7-1-5(17)6(2-16)18-7/h3-7,16-17H,1-2H2,(H2,11,12,13)/t5-,6+,7+/m0/s1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. Purine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides are compounds consisting of a purine linked to a ribose which lacks a hydroxyl group at position 2.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleosides
Sub ClassPurine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
Direct ParentPurine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
Alternative Parents
  • Purine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Amine
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
  • Nucleus
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point189 °C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility10.7 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area119.31 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity61.68 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability24.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0pbc-1950000000-892b755b10f34bcfa1c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-05fr-9750000000-34ebf7e59598c6551f52JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0pbc-2950000000-9d52e7dcd83de5a30aefJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0pbc-1950000000-892b755b10f34bcfa1c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-05fr-9750000000-34ebf7e59598c6551f52JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0pbc-2950000000-9d52e7dcd83de5a30aefJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000x-9550000000-219c39ab05ecbebb53eeJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ge9-6917000000-51808985bdc9abeb3cb3JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0udr-1790000000-c0d4c0cc085cab7c2dcfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-e2abd19062db64ff67beJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-000i-2900000000-1b8d5c847c2b1955056eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-5900000000-845c20e0f6bd5494b6dcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004r-8900000000-484d9f08e4e28fab1f70JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-e852451e7253e0de72beJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0390000000-fba17d1430b371138db2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-000i-0930000000-931c7b084c33f9122af4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-66ae7ac8bd510a173402JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-c71d67857e2136dc7666JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0udr-1790000000-cfbdf2e3950e7987b94bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-a3c367588a28d36cf5f0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-2900000000-1b8d5c847c2b1955056eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-5900000000-f950493ce420caae6a66JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004r-8900000000-61ed5b4b3e748a449803JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-31d03c242f14d91a718cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0udi-0390000000-fba17d1430b371138db2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-0930000000-931c7b084c33f9122af4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-81ac782a59b2ca52f52bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0920000000-2e897a458cf4c7af381cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-f52b5322fde2e3722903JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-fcb0a5032b8607fd8b11JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0290000000-bec96a9658c683fa0d9bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0910000000-b504aa725d20d6213b20JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-053r-2900000000-d09551db93d558a5aed7JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronically high levels of deoxyadenosine are associated Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID13730
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID13135
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17256
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDeoxyadenosine
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Brox LW, Pollock E, Belch A: Adenosine and deoxyadenosine toxicity in colony assay systems for human T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and granulocytes. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1982;9(1):49-52. [6982786 ]
  2. Fox RM, Tripp EH, Taylor IW: Analytical DNA flow cytometric analysis of deoxyadenosine toxicity in cultured human leukemic lymphoblasts. Mol Pharmacol. 1984 Sep;26(2):388-94. [6332978 ]
  3. Bluestein HG, Thompson LF, Albert DA, Seegmiller JE: Altered deoxynucleoside triphosphate levels paralleling deoxyadenosine toxicity in adenosine deaminase inhibited human lymphocytes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1980;122A:427-31. [6968502 ]
  4. Juliusson G, Liliemark J: High complete remission rate from 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine in previously treated patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: response predicted by rapid decrease of blood lymphocyte count. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Apr;11(4):679-89. [8097528 ]
  5. Szabados E, Christopherson RI: Rapid radioassay for metabolites of adenosine and deoxyadenosine in erythrocytes. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1995 Dec 1;674(1):132-7. [8749261 ]
  6. Hershfield MS, Kredich NM, Koller CA, Mitchell BS, Kurtzberg J, Kinney TR, Falletta JM: S-adenosylhomocysteine catabolism and basis for acquired resistance during treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with 2'-deoxycoformycin alone and in combination with 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine. Cancer Res. 1983 Jul;43(7):3451-8. [6601986 ]
  7. Wevers RA, Engelke UF, Moolenaar SH, Brautigam C, de Jong JG, Duran R, de Abreu RA, van Gennip AH: 1H-NMR spectroscopy of body fluids: inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Clin Chem. 1999 Apr;45(4):539-48. [10102915 ]
  8. Mitchell BS, Edwards NL: Purine metabolizing enzymes as predictors of lymphoblast sensitivity to deoxyadenosine. J Lab Clin Med. 1984 Sep;104(3):414-24. [6147383 ]
  9. Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Takahashi S, Fujita T, Tsutsumi Z, Yamakita J, Shimizu K, Shiota M, Ohta S, Higashino K: Determination of adenosine and deoxyadenosine in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Nov 20;719(1-2):55-61. [9869364 ]
  10. Hayward AR: Resistance of pokeweed mitogen-stimulated B cells to inhibition by deoxyadenosine. Clin Exp Immunol. 1980 Jul;41(1):141-9. [6969149 ]
  11. Carson DA, Wasson DB, Kaye J, Ullman B, Martin DW Jr, Robins RK, Montgomery JA: Deoxycytidine kinase-mediated toxicity of deoxyadenosine analogs toward malignant human lymphoblasts in vitro and toward murine L1210 leukemia in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Nov;77(11):6865-9. [6256765 ]
  12. Carson DA, Carrera CJ, Kubota M, Wasson DB, Iizasa T: Genetic analysis of deoxyadenosine toxicity in dividing human lymphoblasts. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1986;195 Pt B:207-11. [3020905 ]
  13. Webster DR, Simmonds HA, Perrett D, Levinsky RJ: Nucleotide levels and metabolism of adenosine and deoxyadenosine in intact erythrocytes deficient in adenosine deaminase. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1984;165 Pt A:363-6. [6609529 ]
  14. Sheridan W, Gordon DS, Fullen AJ, Olson A, Vogler WR, Winton E: Preclinical studies on deoxycoformycin and deoxyadenosine as pharmacologic T cell purging tools. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1989 Sep;4(5):511-7. [2790329 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available