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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-10-02 22:31:28 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:27:01 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4971
Identification
Common NameBromide ion
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionIn nature, bromine is most abundant as a bromide ion. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand. Bromide compounds, especially potassium bromide, were frequently used as sedatives in the 19th and early 20th century. Their use in over-the-counter sedatives and headache remedies (such as Bromo-Seltzer) in the United States extended to 1975, when bromides were withdrawn as ingredients, due to chronic toxicity. Bromide is present in typical seawater (35 PSU) with a concentration of around 65 mg/L, which is around 0.2% of all dissolved salts. Bromide is needed by eosinophils (white blood cells of the granulocyte class, specialized for dealing with multi-cellular parasites), which use it to generate antiparasitic brominating compounds such as hypobromite, by the action of eosinophil peroxidase, a haloperoxidase enzyme which is able to use chloride, but preferentially uses bromide when available.
Compound Type
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Br(-)
Bromide
Bromide (1-)
Bromine anion
Chemical FormulaBr
Average Molecular Mass79.905 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass78.919 g/mol
CAS Registry Number24959-67-9
IUPAC Namebromide
Traditional Namebromide
SMILES[Br-]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/BrH/h1H/p-1
InChI KeyInChIKey=CPELXLSAUQHCOX-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous halogens. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom is a nobel gas.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous halogens
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous halogens
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous halogen
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Actin Filament
  • Apical Membrane
  • Basolateral Membrane
  • Cell junction
  • Cell surface
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cytosol
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Endosome
  • Extracellular
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosome
  • Microsome
  • Mitochondrial Matrix
  • Mitochondrion
  • Nuclear Membrane
  • Nucleolus
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Ribosome
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
Cell cycleNot Availablemap04110
Metabolic PathwaysNot AvailableNot Available
PenicillinsNot AvailableNot Available
Gastric acid secretionNot Availablemap04971
QuinolonesNot AvailableNot Available
Oxidative phosphorylationNot Availablemap00190
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid or Liquid
AppearanceClear liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointDepends on salt form
Boiling PointDepends on salt form
Solubility>100 mg/mL at 25°C
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity8.6 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.36 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-9a9766f03abaa60ab661JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-9a9766f03abaa60ab661JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-9a9766f03abaa60ab661JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-6c7d6016a9d527bae788JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-6c7d6016a9d527bae788JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-6c7d6016a9d527bae788JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-abb69a363cc923ebb9e1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-abb69a363cc923ebb9e1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-abb69a363cc923ebb9e1JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-1900000000-7a2f3d28680a6f34d0e5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe bromide ion is also known to affect the central nervous system, causing bromism. This is believed to be a result of bromide ions substituting for chloride ions in the in actions of neurotransmitters and transport systems, thus affecting numerous synaptic processes. (3, 5, 1)
MetabolismDue to its reactivity, bromine quickly forms bromide and may be deposited in the tissues, displacing other halogens. (3)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 85.2 ppm (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (2) LD50: 2600 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (2) LC50: 750 ppm over 9 minutes (Inhalation, Mouse) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity (not listed by IARC). (6)
Uses/SourcesBromide is present in typical seawater (35 PSU) with a concentration of around 65 mg/L, which is around 0.2% of all dissolved salts. Bromide ions can be found in almost all living organisms, though it is not essential for life.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThe bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant and chronic exposure produces neuronal effects. This is called bromism and can result in central reactions reaching from somnolence to coma, cachexia, exicosis, loss of reflexes or pathologic reflexes, clonic seizures, tremor, ataxia, loss of neural sensitivity, paresis, papillar edema of the eyes, abnormal speech, cerebral edema, delirium, aggressiveness, and psychoses. (4, 3, 5)
SymptomsThe bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant producing ataxia, slurred speech, tremor, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, dizziness, visual disturbances, unsteadiness, headaches, impaired memory and concentration, disorientation and hallucinations. (3, 5)
TreatmentIn case of acute exposure, bromide salts should be washed with water from any areas of dermal or ocular contact. If inhaled, treatment is mainly symptomatic and may include maintaining an adequate airway, administering oxygen, antibronchospasm therapy, and/or antibiotics. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB02500
PubChem Compound ID259
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL11685
ChemSpider ID254
KEGG IDC01324
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID15858
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBromide
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. [17529981 ]
  2. Goodman AB: Retinoid receptors, transporters, and metabolizers as therapeutic targets in late onset Alzheimer disease. J Cell Physiol. 2006 Dec;209(3):598-603. [17001693 ]
  3. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Poison Information Monograph for Bromine. [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Bromine. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Potassium bromide. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
References
  1. Innocenti A, Zimmerman S, Ferry JG, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Sep 6;14(17):4563-7. [15357993 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Lehtonen JM, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the newly isolated murine isozyme XIII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Nov 1;14(21):5435-9. [15454240 ]
  3. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  4. Innocenti A, Hilvo M, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: the membrane-associated isoform XV is highly inhibited by inorganic anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Feb 15;19(4):1155-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.12.082. Epub 2008 Dec 25. [19128966 ]
  5. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
  6. Luca VD, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Carginale V, Rossi M, Supuran CT, Capasso C: An alpha-carbonic anhydrase from the thermophilic bacterium Sulphurihydrogenibium azorense is the fastest enzyme known for the CO2 hydration reaction. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Mar 15;21(6):1465-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2012.09.047. Epub 2012 Sep 29. [23078755 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
References
  1. Innocenti A, Zimmerman S, Ferry JG, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Sep 6;14(17):4563-7. [15357993 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Lehtonen JM, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the newly isolated murine isozyme XIII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Nov 1;14(21):5435-9. [15454240 ]
  3. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  4. Innocenti A, Hilvo M, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: the membrane-associated isoform XV is highly inhibited by inorganic anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Feb 15;19(4):1155-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.12.082. Epub 2008 Dec 25. [19128966 ]
  5. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular Weight:
35032.075 Da
References
  1. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Hilvo M, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: the membrane-associated isoform XV is highly inhibited by inorganic anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Feb 15;19(4):1155-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.12.082. Epub 2008 Dec 25. [19128966 ]
  3. Innocenti A, Zimmerman S, Ferry JG, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Sep 6;14(17):4563-7. [15357993 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name:
CA6
Uniprot ID:
P23280
Molecular Weight:
35366.615 Da
References
  1. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Molecular Weight:
29658.235 Da
References
  1. Vullo D, Ruusuvuori E, Kaila K, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the cytosolic human isozyme VII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jun 15;16(12):3139-43. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [16621537 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Molecular Weight:
49697.36 Da
References
  1. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Chloride/bicarbonate exchanger. Mediates the efficient absorption of chloride ions in the colon, participating in fluid homeostasis. Plays a role in the chloride and bicarbonate homeostasis during sperm epididymal maturation and capacitation.
Gene Name:
SLC26A3
Uniprot ID:
P40879
Molecular Weight:
84504.035 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Seems to act as a chloride ion channel.
Gene Name:
CLCC1
Uniprot ID:
Q96S66
Molecular Weight:
62021.97 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport.
Gene Name:
CLCN1
Uniprot ID:
P35523
Molecular Weight:
108625.435 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport.
Gene Name:
CLCN2
Uniprot ID:
P51788
Molecular Weight:
98534.425 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. May be important in urinary concentrating mechanisms.
Gene Name:
CLCNKA
Uniprot ID:
P51800
Molecular Weight:
75284.08 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. May be important in urinary concentrating mechanisms.
Gene Name:
CLCNKB
Uniprot ID:
P51801
Molecular Weight:
75445.3 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Can insert into membranes and form chloride ion channels. Channel activity depends on the pH. Membrane insertion seems to be redox-regulated and may occur only under oxydizing conditions. Involved in regulation of the cell cycle.
Gene Name:
CLIC1
Uniprot ID:
O00299
Molecular Weight:
26922.47 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Can insert into membranes and form chloride ion channels. Channel activity depends on the pH. Membrane insertion seems to be redox-regulated and may occur only under oxydizing conditions. Modulates the activity of RYR2 and inhibits calcium influx.
Gene Name:
CLIC2
Uniprot ID:
O15247
Molecular Weight:
28356.1 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Required for normal hearing (PubMed:24781754). It is necessary for the formation of stereocilia in the inner ear and normal development of the organ of Corti (By similarity). Can insert into membranes and form poorly selective ion channels that may also transport chloride ions. May play a role in the regulation of transepithelial ion absorption and secretion. Is required for the development and/or maintenance of the proper glomerular endothelial cell and podocyte architecture (PubMed:15184393, PubMed:18028448, PubMed:20335315).
Gene Name:
CLIC5
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZA1
Molecular Weight:
46502.195 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the transport of chloride ions. May regulate bicarbonate secretion and salvage in epithelial cells by regulating the SLC4A7 transporter. Can inhibit the chloride channel activity of ANO1. Plays a role in the chloride and bicarbonate homeostasis during sperm epididymal maturation and capacitation.
Gene Name:
CFTR
Uniprot ID:
P13569
Molecular Weight:
168139.895 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tyrosine nitration of secondary granule proteins in mature resting eosinophils. Shows significant inhibitory activity towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv by inducing bacterial fragmentation and lysis.
Gene Name:
EPX
Uniprot ID:
P11678
Molecular Weight:
81039.5 Da
References
  1. Thomas EL, Bozeman PM, Jefferson MM, King CC. Oxidation of bromide by the human leukocyte enzymes myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Formation of bromamines. J Biol Chem. 1995 Feb 17;270(7):2906-13. [7852368 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Slowly voltage-gated channel mediating the exchange of chloride ions against protons. Functions as antiporter and contributes to the acidification of the lysosome lumen.
Gene Name:
CLCN7
Uniprot ID:
P51798
Molecular Weight:
88678.26 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Terminates the action of GABA by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A1
Uniprot ID:
P30531
Molecular Weight:
67073.0 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Required for the uptake of creatine in muscles and brain.
Gene Name:
SLC6A8
Uniprot ID:
P48029
Molecular Weight:
70522.17 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Terminates the action of glycine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals. May be responsible for the termination of neurotransmission at strychnine-sensitive glycinergic synapses.
Gene Name:
SLC6A5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y345
Molecular Weight:
87433.13 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Taurine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-dependent taurine and beta-alanine transporter. Chloride ions are necessary for optimal uptake.
Gene Name:
SLC6A6
Uniprot ID:
P31641
Molecular Weight:
69829.405 Da
References
  1. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev. 2002 Apr;82(2):503-68. [11917096 ]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]