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  • 3.1.27.-
  • Ribonuclease 5
  • RNase 5
  • RNASE5
Gene NameANG
Amino acid sequence
Number of residues147
Molecular Weight16549.95
Theoretical pI10.09
GO Classification
  • rRNA binding
  • copper ion binding
  • peptide binding
  • DNA binding
  • receptor binding
  • endonuclease activity
  • ribonuclease activity
  • actin binding
  • heparin binding
  • protein homodimerization activity
  • innate immune response
  • rRNA transcription
  • cell communication
  • ovarian follicle development
  • nucleic acid phosphodiester bond hydrolysis
  • response to hypoxia
  • oocyte maturation
  • antibacterial humoral response
  • defense response to Gram-positive bacterium
  • angiogenesis
  • RNA phosphodiester bond hydrolysis
  • negative regulation of translation
  • activation of phospholipase C activity
  • antifungal humoral response
  • positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation
  • activation of phospholipase A2 activity
  • response to hormone
  • actin filament polymerization
  • adherens junction organization
  • placenta development
  • cell junction assembly
  • activation of protein kinase B activity
  • cell-cell junction organization
  • response to yeast
  • diacylglycerol biosynthetic process
  • homeostatic process
  • positive regulation of protein secretion
  • cell migration
  • positive regulation of phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation
  • extracellular region
  • nucleus
  • growth cone
  • neuronal cell body
  • extracellular space
  • angiogenin-PRI complex
  • extracellular exosome
  • basal lamina
  • nucleolus
General FunctionRrna binding
Specific FunctionBinds to actin on the surface of endothelial cells; once bound, angiogenin is endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. Stimulates ribosomal RNA synthesis including that containing the initiation site sequences of 45S rRNA. Cleaves tRNA within anticodon loops to produce tRNA-derived stress-induced fragments (tiRNAs) which inhibit protein synthesis and triggers the assembly of stress granules (SGs). Angiogenin induces vascularization of normal and malignant tissues. Angiogenic activity is regulated by interaction with RNH1 in vivo.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID178250
UniProtKB IDP03950
UniProtKB Entry NameANGI_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasmic vesicle
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010823|Angiogenin (ANG)
GenBank Gene IDM11567
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDANG
Chromosome Location14
  1. Kurachi K, Davie EW, Strydom DJ, Riordan JF, Vallee BL: Sequence of the cDNA and gene for angiogenin, a human angiogenesis factor. Biochemistry. 1985 Sep 24;24(20):5494-9. 2866795
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  4. Strydom DJ, Fett JW, Lobb RR, Alderman EM, Bethune JL, Riordan JF, Vallee BL: Amino acid sequence of human tumor derived angiogenin. Biochemistry. 1985 Sep 24;24(20):5486-94. 2866794
  5. Weiner HL, Weiner LH, Swain JL: Tissue distribution and developmental expression of the messenger RNA encoding angiogenin. Science. 1987 Jul 17;237(4812):280-2. 2440105
  6. Saxena SK, Rybak SM, Davey RT Jr, Youle RJ, Ackerman EJ: Angiogenin is a cytotoxic, tRNA-specific ribonuclease in the RNase A superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 25;267(30):21982-6. 1400510
  7. Moroianu J, Riordan JF: Identification of the nucleolar targeting signal of human angiogenin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Sep 30;203(3):1765-72. 7945327
  8. Chen CZ, Shapiro R: Site-specific mutagenesis reveals differences in the structural bases for tight binding of RNase inhibitor to angiogenin and RNase A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Mar 4;94(5):1761-6. 9050852
  9. Chen CZ, Shapiro R: Superadditive and subadditive effects of "hot spot" mutations within the interfaces of placental ribonuclease inhibitor with angiogenin and ribonuclease A. Biochemistry. 1999 Jul 20;38(29):9273-85. 10413501
  10. Xu ZP, Tsuji T, Riordan JF, Hu GF: The nuclear function of angiogenin in endothelial cells is related to rRNA production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jun 7;294(2):287-92. 12051708
  11. Dickson KA, Kang DK, Kwon YS, Kim JC, Leland PA, Kim BM, Chang SI, Raines RT: Ribonuclease inhibitor regulates neovascularization by human angiogenin. Biochemistry. 2009 May 12;48(18):3804-6. doi: 10.1021/bi9005094. 19354288
  12. Ivanov P, Emara MM, Villen J, Gygi SP, Anderson P: Angiogenin-induced tRNA fragments inhibit translation initiation. Mol Cell. 2011 Aug 19;43(4):613-23. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.06.022. 21855800
  13. Acharya KR, Shapiro R, Allen SC, Riordan JF, Vallee BL: Crystal structure of human angiogenin reveals the structural basis for its functional divergence from ribonuclease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12;91(8):2915-9. 8159679
  14. Papageorgiou AC, Shapiro R, Acharya KR: Molecular recognition of human angiogenin by placental ribonuclease inhibitor--an X-ray crystallographic study at 2.0 A resolution. EMBO J. 1997 Sep 1;16(17):5162-77. 9311977
  15. Leonidas DD, Shapiro R, Allen SC, Subbarao GV, Veluraja K, Acharya KR: Refined crystal structures of native human angiogenin and two active site variants: implications for the unique functional properties of an enzyme involved in neovascularisation during tumour growth. J Mol Biol. 1999 Jan 22;285(3):1209-33. 9918722
  16. Leonidas DD, Chavali GB, Jardine AM, Li S, Shapiro R, Acharya KR: Binding of phosphate and pyrophosphate ions at the active site of human angiogenin as revealed by X-ray crystallography. Protein Sci. 2001 Aug;10(8):1669-76. 11468363
  17. Leonidas DD, Shapiro R, Subbarao GV, Russo A, Acharya KR: Crystallographic studies on the role of the C-terminal segment of human angiogenin in defining enzymatic potency. Biochemistry. 2002 Feb 26;41(8):2552-62. 11851402
  18. Chavali GB, Papageorgiou AC, Olson KA, Fett JW, Hu Gf, Shapiro R, Acharya KR: The crystal structure of human angiogenin in complex with an antitumor neutralizing antibody. Structure. 2003 Jul;11(7):875-85. 12842050
  19. Holloway DE, Chavali GB, Hares MC, Baker MD, Subbarao GV, Shapiro R, Acharya KR: Crystallographic studies on structural features that determine the enzymatic specificity and potency of human angiogenin: Thr44, Thr80, and residues 38-41. Biochemistry. 2004 Feb 10;43(5):1230-41. 14756559
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  27. Conforti FL, Sprovieri T, Mazzei R, Ungaro C, La Bella V, Tessitore A, Patitucci A, Magariello A, Gabriele AL, Tedeschi G, Simone IL, Majorana G, Valentino P, Condino F, Bono F, Monsurro MR, Muglia M, Quattrone A: A novel Angiogenin gene mutation in a sporadic patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from southern Italy. Neuromuscul Disord. 2008 Jan;18(1):68-70. Epub 2007 Aug 20. 17703939
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