Tmic
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NameAlkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme
Synonyms
  • 3.1.3.1
  • Alkaline phosphatase liver/bone/kidney isozyme
  • AP-TNAP
Gene NameALPL
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0006833|Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme
MISPFLVLAIGTCLTNSLVPEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTNVAKNVIMFLGD
GMGVSTVTAARILKGQLHHNPGEETRLEMDKFPFVALSKTYNTNAQVPDSAGTATAYLCG
VKANEGTVGVSAATERSRCNTTQGNEVTSILRWAKDAGKSVGIVTTTRVNHATPSAAYAH
SADRDWYSDNEMPPEALSQGCKDIAYQLMHNIRDIDVIMGGGRKYMYPKNKTDVEYESDE
KARGTRLDGLDLVDTWKSFKPRYKHSHFIWNRTELLTLDPHNVDYLLGLFEPGDMQYELN
RNNVTDPSLSEMVVVAIQILRKNPKGFFLLVEGGRIDHGHHEGKAKQALHEAVEMDRAIG
QAGSLTSSEDTLTVVTADHSHVFTFGGYTPRGNSIFGLAPMLSDTDKKPFTAILYGNGPG
YKVVGGERENVSMVDYAHNNYQAQSAVPLRHETHGGEDVAVFSKGPMAHLLHGVHEQNYV
PHVMAYAACIGANLGHCAPASSAGSLAAGPLLLALALYPLSVLF
Number of residues524
Molecular Weight57304.435
Theoretical pI6.66
GO Classification
Functions
  • pyrophosphatase activity
  • metal ion binding
  • alkaline phosphatase activity
Processes
  • response to lipopolysaccharide
  • response to antibiotic
  • response to vitamin D
  • cellular response to organic cyclic compound
  • developmental process involved in reproduction
  • endochondral ossification
  • cementum mineralization
  • osteoblast differentiation
  • skeletal system development
  • response to glucocorticoid
Components
  • proteinaceous extracellular matrix
  • plasma membrane
  • anchored component of membrane
  • extracellular space
  • integral component of membrane
  • extracellular exosome
  • membrane
General FunctionPyrophosphatase activity
Specific FunctionThis isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID28738
UniProtKB IDP05186
UniProtKB Entry NamePPBT_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCell membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0012468|Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (ALPL)
ATGATTTCACCATTCTTAGTACTGGCCATTGGCACCTGCCTTACTAACTCCTTAGTGCCA
GAGAAAGAGAAAGACCCCAAGTACTGGCGAGACCAAGCGCAAGAGACACTGAAATATGCC
CTGGAGCTTCAGAAGCTCAACACCAACGTGGCTAAGAATGTCATCATGTTCCTGGGAGAT
GGGATGGGTGTCTCCACAGTGACGGCTGCCCGCATCCTCAAGGGTCAGCTCCACCACAAC
CCTGGGGAGGAGACCAGGCTGGAGATGGACAAGTTCCCCTTCGTGGCCCTCTCCAAGACG
TACAACACCAATGCCCAGGTCCCTGACAGCGCCGGCACCGCCACCGCCTACCTGTGTGGG
GTGAAGGCCAATGAGGGCACCGTGGGGGTAAGCGCAGCCACTGAGCGTTCCCGGTGCAAC
ACCACCCAGGGGAACGAGGTCACCTCCATCCTGCGCTGGGCCAAGGACGCTGGGAAATCT
GTGGGCATTGTGACCACCACGAGAGTGAACCATGCCACCCCCAGCGCCGCCTACGCCCAC
TCGGCTGACCGGGACTGGTACTCAGACAACGAGATGCCCCCTGAGGCCTTGAGCCAGGGC
TGTAAGGACATCGCCTACCAGCTCATGCATAACATCAGGGACATTGACGTGATCATGGGG
GGTGGCCGGAAATACATGTACCCCAAGAATAAAACTGATGTGGAGTATGAGAGTGACGAG
AAAGCCAGGGGCACGAGGCTGGACGGCCTGGACCTCGTTGACACCTGGAAGAGCTTCAAA
CCGAGATACAAGCACTCCCACTTCATCTGGAACCGCACGGAACTCCTGACCCTTGACCCC
CACAATGTGGACTACCTATTGGGTCTCTTCGAGCCAGGGGACATGCAGTACGAGCTGAAC
AGGAACAACGTGACGGACCCGTCACTCTCCGAGATGGTGGTGGTGGCCATCCAGATCCTG
CGGAAGAACCCCAAAGGCTTCTTCTTGCTGGTGGAAGGAGGCAGAATTGACCACGGGCAC
CATGAAGGAAAAGCCAAGCAGGCCCTGCATGAGGCGGTGGAGATGGACCGGGCCATCGGG
CAGGCAGGCAGCTTGACCTCCTCGGAAGACACTCTGACCGTGGTCACTGCGGACCATTCC
CACGTCTTCACATTTGGTGGATACACCCCCCGTGGCAACTCTATCTTTGGTCTGGCCCCC
ATGCTGAGTGACACAGACAAGAAGCCCTTCACTGCCATCCTGTATGGCAATGGGCCTGGC
TACAAGGTGGTGGGCGGTGAACGAGAGAATGTCTCCATGGTGGACTATGCTCACAACAAC
TACCAGGCGCAGTCTGCTGTGCCCCTGCGCCACGAGACCCACGGCGGGGAGGACGTGGCC
GTCTTCTCCAAGGGCCCCATGGCGCACCTGCTGCACGGCGTCCACGAGCAGAACTACGTC
CCCCACGTGATGGCGTATGCAGCCTGCATCGGGGCCAACCTCGGCCACTGTGCTCCTGCC
AGCTCGGCAGGCAGCCTTGCTGCAGGCCCCCTGCTGCTCGCGCTGGCCCTCTACCCCCTG
AGCGTCCTGTTCTGA
GenBank Gene IDX14174
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDNot Available
HGNC IDHGNC:438
Chromosome Location1
Locus1p36.12
References
  1. Weiss MJ, Henthorn PS, Lafferty MA, Slaughter C, Raducha M, Harris H: Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a human liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Oct;83(19):7182-6. 3532105
  2. Weiss MJ, Ray K, Henthorn PS, Lamb B, Kadesch T, Harris H: Structure of the human liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase gene. J Biol Chem. 1988 Aug 25;263(24):12002-10. 3165380
  3. Kishi F, Matsuura S, Kajii T: Nucleotide sequence of the human liver-type alkaline phosphatase cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Mar 11;17(5):2129. 2928120
  4. Sugimoto N, Iwamoto S, Hoshino Y, Kajii E: A novel missense mutation of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene detected in a patient with hypophosphatasia. J Hum Genet. 1998;43(3):160-4. 9747027
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  8. Garattini E, Hua JC, Pan YC, Udenfriend S: Human liver alkaline phosphatase, purification and partial sequencing: homology with the placental isozyme. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986 Mar;245(2):331-7. 3954357
  9. Nishihara Y, Hayashi Y, Adachi T, Koyama I, Stigbrand T, Hirano K: Chemical nature of intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase in human kidney. Clin Chem. 1992 Dec;38(12):2539-42. 1458595
  10. Elortza F, Nuhse TS, Foster LJ, Stensballe A, Peck SC, Jensen ON: Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1261-70. Epub 2003 Sep 29. 14517339
  11. Elortza F, Mohammed S, Bunkenborg J, Foster LJ, Nuhse TS, Brodbeck U, Peck SC, Jensen ON: Modification-specific proteomics of plasma membrane proteins: identification and characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins released upon phospholipase D treatment. J Proteome Res. 2006 Apr;5(4):935-43. 16602701
  12. Chen R, Jiang X, Sun D, Han G, Wang F, Ye M, Wang L, Zou H: Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry. J Proteome Res. 2009 Feb;8(2):651-61. doi: 10.1021/pr8008012. 19159218
  13. Rigbolt KT, Prokhorova TA, Akimov V, Henningsen J, Johansen PT, Kratchmarova I, Kassem M, Mann M, Olsen JV, Blagoev B: System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Sci Signal. 2011 Mar 15;4(164):rs3. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2001570. 21406692
  14. Weiss MJ, Cole DE, Ray K, Whyte MP, Lafferty MA, Mulivor RA, Harris H: A missense mutation in the human liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase gene causing a lethal form of hypophosphatasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Oct;85(20):7666-9. 3174660
  15. Henthorn PS, Raducha M, Fedde KN, Lafferty MA, Whyte MP: Different missense mutations at the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene locus in autosomal recessively inherited forms of mild and severe hypophosphatasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Oct 15;89(20):9924-8. 1409720
  16. Greenberg CR, Taylor CL, Haworth JC, Seargeant LE, Philipps S, Triggs-Raine B, Chodirker BN: A homoallelic Gly317-->Asp mutation in ALPL causes the perinatal (lethal) form of hypophosphatasia in Canadian mennonites. Genomics. 1993 Jul;17(1):215-7. 8406453
  17. Orimo H, Hayashi Z, Watanabe A, Hirayama T, Hirayama T, Shimada T: Novel missense and frameshift mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene in a Japanese patient with hypophosphatasia. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Sep;3(9):1683-4. 7833929
  18. Ozono K, Yamagata M, Michigami T, Nakajima S, Sakai N, Cai G, Satomura K, Yasui N, Okada S, Nakayama M: Identification of novel missense mutations (Phe310Leu and Gly439Arg) in a neonatal case of hypophosphatasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Dec;81(12):4458-61. 8954059
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  20. Goseki-Sone M, Orimo H, Iimura T, Takagi Y, Watanabe H, Taketa K, Sato S, Mayanagi H, Shimada T, Oida S: Hypophosphatasia: identification of five novel missense mutations (G507A, G705A, A748G, T1155C, G1320A) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene among Japanese patients. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S263-7. 9452105
  21. Zurutuza L, Muller F, Gibrat JF, Taillandier A, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Mornet E: Correlations of genotype and phenotype in hypophosphatasia. Hum Mol Genet. 1999 Jun;8(6):1039-46. 10332035
  22. Taillandier A, Zurutuza L, Muller F, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Bird L, Brenner R, Boute O, Cousin J, Gaillard D, Heidemann PH, Steinmann B, Wallot M, Mornet E: Characterization of eleven novel mutations (M45L, R119H, 544delG, G145V, H154Y, C184Y, D289V, 862+5A, 1172delC, R411X, E459K) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene in patients with severe hypophosphatasia. Mutations in brief no. 217. Online. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(2):171-2. 10094560
  23. Mochizuki H, Saito M, Michigami T, Ohashi H, Koda N, Yamaguchi S, Ozono K: Severe hypercalcaemia and respiratory insufficiency associated with infantile hypophosphatasia caused by two novel mutations of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene. Eur J Pediatr. 2000 May;159(5):375-9. 10834525
  24. Taillandier A, Cozien E, Muller F, Merrien Y, Bonnin E, Fribourg C, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Bieth E, Brenner R, Cordier MP, De Bie S, Fellmann F, Freisinger P, Hesse V, Hennekam RC, Josifova D, Kerzin-Storrar L, Leporrier N, Zabot MT, Mornet E: Fifteen new mutations (-195C>T, L-12X, 298-2A>G, T117N, A159T, R229S, 997+2T>A, E274X, A331T, H364R, D389G, 1256delC, R433H, N461I, C472S) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene in patients with hypophosphatasia. Hum Mutat. 2000 Mar;15(3):293. 10679946
  25. Muller HL, Yamazaki M, Michigami T, Kageyama T, Schonau E, Schneider P, Ozono K: Asp361Val Mutant of alkaline phosphatase found in patients with dominantly inherited hypophosphatasia inhibits the activity of the wild-type enzyme. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Feb;85(2):743-7. 10690885
  26. Sergi C, Mornet E, Troeger J, Voigtlaender T: Perinatal hypophosphatasia: radiology, pathology and molecular biology studies in a family harboring a splicing mutation (648+1A) and a novel missense mutation (N400S) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene. Am J Med Genet. 2001 Oct 15;103(3):235-40. 11745997
  27. Lia-Baldini AS, Muller F, Taillandier A, Gibrat JF, Mouchard M, Robin B, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Aylsworth AS, Bieth E, Delanote S, Freisinger P, Hu JC, Krohn HP, Nunes ME, Mornet E: A molecular approach to dominance in hypophosphatasia. Hum Genet. 2001 Jul;109(1):99-108. 11479741
  28. Taillandier A, Lia-Baldini AS, Mouchard M, Robin B, Muller F, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Bera-Louville A, Bonduelle M, Eckhardt J, Gaillard D, Myhre AG, Kortge-Jung S, Larget-Piet L, Malou E, Sillence D, Temple IK, Viot G, Mornet E: Twelve novel mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL) in patients with various forms of hypophosphatasia. Hum Mutat. 2001;18(1):83-4. 11438998
  29. Orimo H, Girschick HJ, Goseki-Sone M, Ito M, Oda K, Shimada T: Mutational analysis and functional correlation with phenotype in German patients with childhood-type hypophosphatasia. J Bone Miner Res. 2001 Dec;16(12):2313-9. 11760847
  30. Watanabe H, Hashimoto-Uoshima M, Goseki-Sone M, Orimo H, Ishikawa I: A novel point mutation (C571T) in the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene in a case of adult-type hypophosphatasia. Oral Dis. 2001 Nov;7(6):331-5. 11834095
  31. Litmanovitz, Reish O, Dolfin T, Arnon S, Regev R, Grinshpan G, Yamazaki M, Ozono K: Glu274Lys/Gly309Arg mutation of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene in neonatal hypophosphatasia associated with convulsions. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002 Feb;25(1):35-40. 11999978
  32. Mumm S, Jones J, Finnegan P, Henthorn PS, Podgornik MN, Whyte MP: Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme gene in hypophosphatasia. Mol Genet Metab. 2002 Feb;75(2):143-53. 11855933
  33. Spentchian M, Merrien Y, Herasse M, Dobbie Z, Glaser D, Holder SE, Ivarsson SA, Kostiner D, Mansour S, Norman A, Roth J, Stipoljev F, Taillemite JL, van der Smagt JJ, Serre JL, Simon-Bouy B, Taillandier A, Mornet E: Severe hypophosphatasia: characterization of fifteen novel mutations in the ALPL gene. Hum Mutat. 2003 Jul;22(1):105-6. 12815606
  34. Herasse M, Spentchian M, Taillandier A, Keppler-Noreuil K, Fliorito AN, Bergoffen J, Wallerstein R, Muti C, Simon-Bouy B, Mornet E: Molecular study of three cases of odontohypophosphatasia resulting from heterozygosity for mutations in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene. J Med Genet. 2003 Aug;40(8):605-9. 12920074
  35. Draguet C, Gillerot Y, Mornet E: [Childhood hypophosphatasia: a case report due to a novel mutation]. Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):440-3. 15135428
  36. Brun-Heath I, Taillandier A, Serre JL, Mornet E: Characterization of 11 novel mutations in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene responsible for hypophosphatasia and genotype-phenotype correlations. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Mar;84(3):273-7. Epub 2004 Dec 19. 15694177