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NameGlutathione S-transferase A1
  • GST class-alpha member 1
  • GST HA subunit 1
  • GST-epsilon
  • GSTA1-1
  • GTH1
Gene NameGSTA1
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0011643|Glutathione S-transferase A1
Number of residues222
Molecular Weight25630.785
Theoretical pI9.34
GO Classification
  • glutathione transferase activity
  • metabolic process
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • xenobiotic metabolic process
  • glutathione metabolic process
  • glutathione derivative biosynthetic process
  • epithelial cell differentiation
  • cytosol
  • extracellular exosome
General FunctionGlutathione transferase activity
Specific FunctionConjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID306809
UniProtKB IDP08263
UniProtKB Entry NameGSTA1_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0011644|Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1)
GenBank Gene IDM15872
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDGSTA1
Chromosome Location6
  1. Tu CP, Qian B: Human liver glutathione S-transferases: complete primary sequence of an Ha subunit cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Nov 26;141(1):229-37. 3800996
  2. Rhoads DM, Zarlengo RP, Tu CP: The basic glutathione S-transferases from human livers are products of separate genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 May 29;145(1):474-81. 3036131
  3. Tu CP, Qian B: Nucleotide sequence of the human liver glutathione S-transferase subunit 1 cDNA. Biochem Soc Trans. 1987 Aug;15(4):734-6. 3678589
  4. Board PG, Webb GC: Isolation of a cDNA clone and localization of human glutathione S-transferase 2 genes to chromosome band 6p12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2377-81. 3031680
  5. Rozen F, Nguyen T, Pickett CB: Isolation and characterization of a human glutathione S-transferase Ha1 subunit gene. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 Feb 1;292(2):589-93. 1731620
  6. Stenberg G, Bjornestedt R, Mannervik B: Heterologous expression of recombinant human glutathione transferase A1-1 from a hepatoma cell line. Protein Expr Purif. 1992 Feb;3(1):80-4. 1330133
  7. Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J, Beck S: The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. Nature. 2003 Oct 23;425(6960):805-11. 14574404
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  9. Chow NW, Whang-Peng J, Kao-Shan CS, Tam MF, Lai HC, Tu CP: Human glutathione S-transferases. The Ha multigene family encodes products of different but overlapping substrate specificities. J Biol Chem. 1988 Sep 15;263(26):12797-800. 3138230
  10. Ahmad H, Singhal SS, Saxena M, Awasthi YC: Characterization of two novel subunits of the alpha-class glutathione S-transferases of human liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Feb 13;1161(2-3):333-6. 8431482
  11. Hayes JD, Kerr LA, Cronshaw AD: Evidence that glutathione S-transferases B1B1 and B2B2 are the products of separate genes and that their expression in human liver is subject to inter-individual variation. Molecular relationships between the B1 and B2 subunits and other Alpha class glutathione S-transferases. Biochem J. 1989 Dec 1;264(2):437-45. 2604726
  12. Board PG, Mannervik B: The contribution of the C-terminal sequence to the catalytic activity of GST2, a human alpha-class glutathione transferase. Biochem J. 1991 Apr 1;275 ( Pt 1):171-4. 2018473
  13. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. 24275569
  14. Sinning I, Kleywegt GJ, Cowan SW, Reinemer P, Dirr HW, Huber R, Gilliland GL, Armstrong RN, Ji X, Board PG, et al.: Structure determination and refinement of human alpha class glutathione transferase A1-1, and a comparison with the Mu and Pi class enzymes. J Mol Biol. 1993 Jul 5;232(1):192-212. 8331657
  15. Cameron AD, Sinning I, L'Hermite G, Olin B, Board PG, Mannervik B, Jones TA: Structural analysis of human alpha-class glutathione transferase A1-1 in the apo-form and in complexes with ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Structure. 1995 Jul 15;3(7):717-27. 8591048
  16. Le Trong I, Stenkamp RE, Ibarra C, Atkins WM, Adman ET: 1.3-A resolution structure of human glutathione S-transferase with S-hexyl glutathione bound reveals possible extended ligandin binding site. Proteins. 2002 Sep 1;48(4):618-27. 12211029
  17. Hederos S, Broo KS, Jakobsson E, Kleywegt GJ, Mannervik B, Baltzer L: Incorporation of a single His residue by rational design enables thiol-ester hydrolysis by human glutathione transferase A1-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 7;101(36):13163-7. Epub 2004 Aug 27. 15333749
  18. Kuhnert DC, Sayed Y, Mosebi S, Sayed M, Sewell T, Dirr HW: Tertiary interactions stabilise the C-terminal region of human glutathione transferase A1-1: a crystallographic and calorimetric study. J Mol Biol. 2005 Jun 17;349(4):825-38. 15893769
  19. Grahn E, Novotny M, Jakobsson E, Gustafsson A, Grehn L, Olin B, Madsen D, Wahlberg M, Mannervik B, Kleywegt GJ: New crystal structures of human glutathione transferase A1-1 shed light on glutathione binding and the conformation of the C-terminal helix. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006 Feb;62(Pt 2):197-207. Epub 2006 Jan 18. 16421451
  20. Balogh LM, Le Trong I, Kripps KA, Tars K, Stenkamp RE, Mannervik B, Atkins WM: Structural analysis of a glutathione transferase A1-1 mutant tailored for high catalytic efficiency with toxic alkenals. Biochemistry. 2009 Aug 18;48(32):7698-704. doi: 10.1021/bi900895b. 19618965
  21. Achilonu I, Gildenhuys S, Fisher L, Burke J, Fanucchi S, Sewell BT, Fernandes M, Dirr HW: The role of a topologically conserved isoleucine in glutathione transferase structure, stability and function. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2010 Jul 1;66(Pt 7):776-80. doi: 10.1107/S1744309110019135. Epub 2010 Jun 23. 20606271