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NameGlutathione S-transferase A1
Synonyms
  • 2.5.1.18
  • GST class-alpha member 1
  • GST HA subunit 1
  • GST-epsilon
  • GSTA1-1
  • GTH1
Gene NameGSTA1
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0011643|Glutathione S-transferase A1
MAEKPKLHYFNARGRMESTRWLLAAAGVEFEEKFIKSAEDLDKLRNDGYLMFQQVPMVEI
DGMKLVQTRAILNYIASKYNLYGKDIKERALIDMYIEGIADLGEMILLLPVCPPEEKDAK
LALIKEKIKNRYFPAFEKVLKSHGQDYLVGNKLSRADIHLVELLYYVEELDSSLISSFPL
LKALKTRISNLPTVKKFLQPGSPRKPPMDEKSLEEARKIFRF
Number of residues222
Molecular Weight25630.785
Theoretical pI9.34
GO Classification
Functions
  • glutathione transferase activity
Processes
  • glutathione derivative biosynthetic process
  • epithelial cell differentiation
  • metabolic process
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • xenobiotic metabolic process
  • glutathione metabolic process
Components
  • cytosol
  • extracellular exosome
General FunctionGlutathione transferase activity
Specific FunctionConjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID306809
UniProtKB IDP08263
UniProtKB Entry NameGSTA1_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0011644|Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1)
ATGGCAGAGAAGCCCAAGCTCCACTACTTCAATGCACGGGGCAGAATGGAGTCCACCCGG
TGGCTCCTGGCTGCAGCTGGAGTAGAGTTTGAAGAGAAATTTATAAAATCTGCAGAAGAT
TTGGACAAGTTAAGAAATGATGGATATTTGATGTTCCAGCAAGTGCCAATGGTTGAGATT
GATGGGATGAAGCTGGTGCAGACCAGAGCCATTCTCAACTACATTGCCAGCAAATACAAC
CTCTATGGGAAAGACATAAAGGAGAGAGCCCTGATTGATATGTATATAGAAGGTATAGCA
GATTTGGGTGAAATGATCCTCCTTCTGCCCGTATGTCCACCTGAGGAAAAAGATGCCAAG
CTTGCCTTGATCAAAGAGAAAATAAAAAATCGCTACTTCCCTGCCTTTGAAAAAGTCTTA
AAGAGCCATGGACAAGACTACCTTGTTGGCAACAAGCTGAGCCGGGCTGACATTCATCTG
GTGGAACTTCTCTACTACGTCGAGGAGCTTGACTCCAGTCTTATCTCCAGCTTCCCTCTG
CTGAAGGCCCTGAAAACCAGAATCAGCAACCTGCCCACAGTGAAGAAGTTTCTACAGCCT
GGCAGCCCAAGGAAGCCTCCCATGGATGAGAAATCTTTAGAAGAAGCAAGGAAGATTTTC
AGGTTTTAA
GenBank Gene IDM15872
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDGSTA1
HGNC IDHGNC:4626
Chromosome Location6
Locus6p12.1
References
  1. Tu CP, Qian B: Human liver glutathione S-transferases: complete primary sequence of an Ha subunit cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Nov 26;141(1):229-37. 3800996
  2. Rhoads DM, Zarlengo RP, Tu CP: The basic glutathione S-transferases from human livers are products of separate genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 May 29;145(1):474-81. 3036131
  3. Tu CP, Qian B: Nucleotide sequence of the human liver glutathione S-transferase subunit 1 cDNA. Biochem Soc Trans. 1987 Aug;15(4):734-6. 3678589
  4. Board PG, Webb GC: Isolation of a cDNA clone and localization of human glutathione S-transferase 2 genes to chromosome band 6p12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2377-81. 3031680
  5. Rozen F, Nguyen T, Pickett CB: Isolation and characterization of a human glutathione S-transferase Ha1 subunit gene. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 Feb 1;292(2):589-93. 1731620
  6. Stenberg G, Bjornestedt R, Mannervik B: Heterologous expression of recombinant human glutathione transferase A1-1 from a hepatoma cell line. Protein Expr Purif. 1992 Feb;3(1):80-4. 1330133
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  9. Chow NW, Whang-Peng J, Kao-Shan CS, Tam MF, Lai HC, Tu CP: Human glutathione S-transferases. The Ha multigene family encodes products of different but overlapping substrate specificities. J Biol Chem. 1988 Sep 15;263(26):12797-800. 3138230
  10. Ahmad H, Singhal SS, Saxena M, Awasthi YC: Characterization of two novel subunits of the alpha-class glutathione S-transferases of human liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Feb 13;1161(2-3):333-6. 8431482
  11. Hayes JD, Kerr LA, Cronshaw AD: Evidence that glutathione S-transferases B1B1 and B2B2 are the products of separate genes and that their expression in human liver is subject to inter-individual variation. Molecular relationships between the B1 and B2 subunits and other Alpha class glutathione S-transferases. Biochem J. 1989 Dec 1;264(2):437-45. 2604726
  12. Board PG, Mannervik B: The contribution of the C-terminal sequence to the catalytic activity of GST2, a human alpha-class glutathione transferase. Biochem J. 1991 Apr 1;275 ( Pt 1):171-4. 2018473
  13. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. 24275569
  14. Sinning I, Kleywegt GJ, Cowan SW, Reinemer P, Dirr HW, Huber R, Gilliland GL, Armstrong RN, Ji X, Board PG, et al.: Structure determination and refinement of human alpha class glutathione transferase A1-1, and a comparison with the Mu and Pi class enzymes. J Mol Biol. 1993 Jul 5;232(1):192-212. 8331657
  15. Cameron AD, Sinning I, L'Hermite G, Olin B, Board PG, Mannervik B, Jones TA: Structural analysis of human alpha-class glutathione transferase A1-1 in the apo-form and in complexes with ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Structure. 1995 Jul 15;3(7):717-27. 8591048
  16. Le Trong I, Stenkamp RE, Ibarra C, Atkins WM, Adman ET: 1.3-A resolution structure of human glutathione S-transferase with S-hexyl glutathione bound reveals possible extended ligandin binding site. Proteins. 2002 Sep 1;48(4):618-27. 12211029
  17. Hederos S, Broo KS, Jakobsson E, Kleywegt GJ, Mannervik B, Baltzer L: Incorporation of a single His residue by rational design enables thiol-ester hydrolysis by human glutathione transferase A1-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 7;101(36):13163-7. Epub 2004 Aug 27. 15333749
  18. Kuhnert DC, Sayed Y, Mosebi S, Sayed M, Sewell T, Dirr HW: Tertiary interactions stabilise the C-terminal region of human glutathione transferase A1-1: a crystallographic and calorimetric study. J Mol Biol. 2005 Jun 17;349(4):825-38. 15893769
  19. Grahn E, Novotny M, Jakobsson E, Gustafsson A, Grehn L, Olin B, Madsen D, Wahlberg M, Mannervik B, Kleywegt GJ: New crystal structures of human glutathione transferase A1-1 shed light on glutathione binding and the conformation of the C-terminal helix. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006 Feb;62(Pt 2):197-207. Epub 2006 Jan 18. 16421451
  20. Balogh LM, Le Trong I, Kripps KA, Tars K, Stenkamp RE, Mannervik B, Atkins WM: Structural analysis of a glutathione transferase A1-1 mutant tailored for high catalytic efficiency with toxic alkenals. Biochemistry. 2009 Aug 18;48(32):7698-704. doi: 10.1021/bi900895b. 19618965
  21. Achilonu I, Gildenhuys S, Fisher L, Burke J, Fanucchi S, Sewell BT, Fernandes M, Dirr HW: The role of a topologically conserved isoleucine in glutathione transferase structure, stability and function. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2010 Jul 1;66(Pt 7):776-80. doi: 10.1107/S1744309110019135. Epub 2010 Jun 23. 20606271