You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
NameAlanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
Synonyms
  • 6.1.1.7
  • Alanyl-tRNA synthetase
  • AlaRS
  • Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-42
Gene NameAARS
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0000585|Alanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
MDSTLTASEIRQRFIDFFKRNEHTYVHSSATIPLDDPTLLFANAGMNQFKPIFLNTIDPS
HPMAKLSRAANTQKCIRAGGKHNDLDDVGKDVYHHTFFEMLGSWSFGDYFKELACKMALE
LLTQEFGIPIERLYVTYFGGDEAAGLEADLECKQIWQNLGLDDTKILPGNMKDNFWEMGD
TGPCGPCSEIHYDRIGGRDAAHLVNQDDPNVLEIWNLVFIQYNREADGILKPLPKKSIDT
GMGLERLVSVLQNKMSNYDTDLFVPYFEAIQKGTGARPYTGKVGAEDADGIDMAYRVLAD
HARTITVALADGGRPDNTGRGYVLRRILRRAVRYAHEKLNASRGFFATLVDVVVQSLGDA
FPELKKDPDMVKDIINEEEVQFLKTLSRGRRILDRKIQSLGDSKTIPGDTAWLLYDTYGF
PVDLTGLIAEEKGLVVDMDGFEEERKLAQLKSQGKGAGGEDLIMLDIYAIEELRARGLEV
TDDSPKYNYHLDSSGSYVFENTVATVMALRREKMFVEEVSTGQECGVVLDKTCFYAEQGG
QIYDEGYLVKVDDSSEDKTEFTVKNAQVRGGYVLHIGTIYGDLKVGDQVWLFIDEPRRRP
IMSNHTATHILNFALRSVLGEADQKGSLVAPDRLRFDFTAKGAMSTQQIKKAEEIANEMI
EAAKAVYTQDCPLAAAKAIQGLRAVFDETYPDPVRVVSIGVPVSELLDDPSGPAGSLTSV
EFCGGTHLRNSSHAGAFVIVTEEAIAKGIRRIVAVTGAEAQKALRKAESLKKCLSVMEAK
VKAQTAPNKDVQREIADLGEALATAVIPQWQKDELRETLKSLKKVMDDLDRASKADVQKR
VLEKTKQFIDSNPNQPLVILEMESGASAKALNEALKLFKMHSPQTSAMLFTVDNEAGKIT
CLCQVPQNAANRGLKASEWVQQVSGLMDGKGGGKDVSAQATGKNVGCLQEALQLATSFAQ
LRLGDVKN
Number of residues968
Molecular Weight106809.525
Theoretical pI5.18
GO Classification
Functions
  • aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity
  • ATP binding
  • amino acid binding
  • tRNA binding
  • metal ion binding
  • alanine-tRNA ligase activity
Processes
  • alanyl-tRNA aminoacylation
  • gene expression
  • hair follicle development
  • endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response
  • response to amino acid
  • cerebellar Purkinje cell layer development
  • tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation
  • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process
  • neuromuscular process controlling balance
  • protein folding
  • tRNA modification
  • tRNA processing
Components
  • cytosol
  • extracellular exosome
  • cytoplasm
  • membrane
General FunctionTrna binding
Specific FunctionCatalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID1015321
UniProtKB IDP49588
UniProtKB Entry NameSYAC_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010066|Alanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic (AARS)
ATGGACTCTACTCTAACAGCAAGTGAAATCCGGCAGCGATTTATAGATTTCTTCAAGAGG
AACGAGCATACGTATGTTCACTCGTCTGCCACCATCCCATTGGATGACCCCACTTTGCTC
TTTGCCAATGCAGGCATGAACCAGTTTAAACCCATTTTCCTGAACACAATTGACCCATCT
CACCCCATGGCAAAGCTGAGCAGAGCTGCCAATACCCAGAAGTGCATCCGGGCTGGGGGC
AAACATAATGACCTGGACGATGTGGGCAAGGATGTCTATCATCACACCTTCTTCGAGATG
CTGGGCTCTTGGTCTTTTGGAGATTACTTTAAGGAATTGGCATGTAAGATGGCTCTGGAA
CTCCTCACCCAAGAGTTTGGCATTCCCATTGAAAGACTTTATGTTACTTACTTTGGCGGG
GATGAAGCAGCTGGCTTAGAAGCAGATCTGGAATGCAAACAGATCTGGCAAAATTTGGGG
CTGGATGACACCAAAATCCTCCCAGGCAACATGAAGGATAACTTCTGGGAGATGGGTGAC
ACGGGCCCCTGTGGTCCTTGCAGTGAGATCCACTACGACCGGATTGGTGGTCGGGACGCC
GCACATCTTGTCAACCAGGACGACCCTAATGTGCTGGAGATCTGGAACCTTGTGTTCATC
CAGTATAACAGGGAAGCTGATGGCATTCTGAAACCTCTTCCCAAGAAAAGCATTGACACA
GGGATGGGCCTGGAACGACTGGTATCTGTGCTGCAGAATAAGATGTCCAACTATGACACT
GACCTTTTTGTCCCTTACTTTGAAGCCATTCAGAAGGGCACAGGTGCCCGACCATACACT
GGGAAAGTTGGTGCTGAGGATGCCGATGGGATTGACATGGCCTACCGGGTGCTGGCTGAC
CACGCTCGGACCATCACTGTGGCACTGGCTGATGGTGGCCGGCCTGACAACACAGGGCGT
GGATATGTGTTGAGACGGATTCTCCGCCGAGCTGTCCGATACGCCCATGAAAAGCTCAAT
GCCAGCAGGGGCTTCTTTGCTACGTTAGTGGATGTTGTCGTCCAGTCCCTGGGAGATGCA
TTTCCTGAGCTGAAGAAGGACCCAGACATGGTGAAGGACATCATTAATGAAGAAGAGGTG
CAGTTTCTCAAGACTCTCAGCAGAGGGCGTCGCATCCTGGACAGGAAAATTCAGAGCCTG
GGAGACAGCAAGACCATTCCCGGAGACACTGCTTGGCTCCTCTATGACACCTATGGGTTT
CCAGTGGATCTGACTGGACTGATTGCTGAAGAGAAGGGCCTGGTGGTAGACATGGATGGC
TTTGAAGAGGAGAGGAAACTGGCCCAGCTGAAATCACAGGGCAAGGGAGCTGGTGGGGAA
GACCTCATTATGCTGGACATTTACGCTATCGAAGAGCTCCGGGCACGGGGTCTGGAGGTC
ACAGATGATTCCCCAAAGTACAATTACCATTTGGACTCCAGTGGTAGCTATGTATTTGAG
AACACAGTGGCTACGGTGATGGCTCTGCGCAGGGAGAAGATGTTCGTGGAAGAGGTGTCC
ACAGGCCAGGAGTGTGGAGTGGTGCTGGACAAGACCTGTTTCTATGCTGAGCAAGGAGGC
CAGATCTATGACGAAGGCTACCTGGTGAAGGTGGATGACAGCAGTGAAGATAAAACAGAG
TTTACAGTGAAGAATGCTCAGGTCCGAGGAGGGTATGTGCTACACATTGGAACCATCTAC
GGTGACCTGAAAGTGGGGGATCAGGTCTGGCTGTTTATTGATGAGCCCCGACGAAGACCC
ATCATGAGCAACCACACAGCTACGCACATTCTGAACTTCGCCCTGCGCTCAGTGCTTGGG
GAAGCTGACCAGAAAGGCTCATTGGTTGCTCCTGACCGCCTCAGATTTGACTTTACTGCC
AAGGGAGCCATGTCCACCCAACAGATCAAGAAGGCTGAAGAGATTGCTAATGAGATGATT
GAGGCAGCCAAGGCCGTCTATACCCAGGATTGCCCCCTGGCAGCAGCGAAAGCCATCCAG
GGCCTACGGGCTGTGTTTGATGAGACCTATCCTGACCCTGTGCGAGTCGTCTCCATTGGG
GTCCCGGTGTCCGAGTTGCTGGATGACCCCTCTGGGCCTGCTGGCTCCCTGACTTCTGTT
GAGTTCTGTGGGGGAACGCACCTGCGGAACTCGAGTCATGCAGGAGCTTTTGTGATCGTG
ACGGAAGAAGCCATTGCCAAGGGTATCCGGAGGATTGTGGCTGTCACAGGTGCCGAGGCC
CAGAAGGCCCTCAGGAAAGCAGAGAGCTTGAAGAAATGTCTCTCTGTCATGGAAGCCAAA
GTGAAGGCTCAGACTGCTCCAAACAAGGATGTGCAGAGGGAGATCGCTGACCTTGGAGAG
GCCCTGGCCACTGCAGTCATCCCCCAGTGGCAGAAGGATGAATTGCGGGAGACTCTCAAA
TCCCTAAAGAAGGTCATGGATGACTTGGACCGAGCCAGCAAAGCCGATGTCCAGAAACGA
GTGTTAGAGAAGACGAAGCAGTTCATCGACAGCAACCCCAACCAGCCTCTTGTCATCCTG
GAGATGGAGAGCGGCGCCTCAGCCAAGGCCCTGAATGAAGCCTTGAAGCTCTTCAAGATG
CACTCCCCTCAGACTTCTGCCATGCTCTTCACGGTGGACAATGAGGCTGGCAAGATCACG
TGCCTGTGTCAAGTTCCCCAGAATGCAGCCAATCGGGGCTTAAAAGCCAGCGAGTGGGTG
CAGCAGGTGTCAGGCTTGATGGACGGTAAAGGTGGTGGCAAGGATGTGTCTGCACAGGCC
ACAGGCAAGAACGTTGGCTGCCTGCAGGAGGCGCTGCAGCTGGCCACTTCCTTCGCCCAG
CTGCGCCTCGGGGATGTAAAGAACTGA
GenBank Gene IDD32050
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDAARS
HGNC IDHGNC:20
Chromosome Location16
Locus16q22
References
  1. Shiba K, Ripmaster T, Suzuki N, Nichols R, Plotz P, Noda T, Schimmel P: Human alanyl-tRNA synthetase: conservation in evolution of catalytic core and microhelix recognition. Biochemistry. 1995 Aug 22;34(33):10340-9. 7654687
  2. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. 14702039
  3. Martin J, Han C, Gordon LA, Terry A, Prabhakar S, She X, Xie G, Hellsten U, Chan YM, Altherr M, Couronne O, Aerts A, Bajorek E, Black S, Blumer H, Branscomb E, Brown NC, Bruno WJ, Buckingham JM, Callen DF, Campbell CS, Campbell ML, Campbell EW, Caoile C, Challacombe JF, Chasteen LA, Chertkov O, Chi HC, Christensen M, Clark LM, Cohn JD, Denys M, Detter JC, Dickson M, Dimitrijevic-Bussod M, Escobar J, Fawcett JJ, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Goodstein D, Goodwin LA, Grady DL, Grigoriev I, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Hildebrand CE, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Jewett PB, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Krawczyk MC, Leyba T, Longmire JL, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Ludeman T, Manohar CF, Mark GA, McMurray KL, Meincke LJ, Morgan J, Moyzis RK, Mundt MO, Munk AC, Nandkeshwar RD, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Predki P, Parson-Quintana B, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Ricke DO, Robinson DL, Rodriguez A, Salamov A, Saunders EH, Scott D, Shough T, Stallings RL, Stalvey M, Sutherland RD, Tapia R, Tesmer JG, Thayer N, Thompson LS, Tice H, Torney DC, Tran-Gyamfi M, Tsai M, Ulanovsky LE, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, White PS, Williams AL, Wills PL, Wu JR, Wu K, Yang J, Dejong P, Bruce D, Doggett NA, Deaven L, Schmutz J, Grimwood J, Richardson P, Rokhsar DS, Eichler EE, Gilna P, Lucas SM, Myers RM, Rubin EM, Pennacchio LA: The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16. Nature. 2004 Dec 23;432(7020):988-94. 15616553
  4. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. 15489334
  5. Scanlan MJ, Gordan JD, Williamson B, Stockert E, Bander NH, Jongeneel V, Gure AO, Jager D, Jager E, Knuth A, Chen YT, Old LJ: Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1999 Nov 12;83(4):456-64. 10508479
  6. Giannakopoulos NV, Luo JK, Papov V, Zou W, Lenschow DJ, Jacobs BS, Borden EC, Li J, Virgin HW, Zhang DE: Proteomic identification of proteins conjugated to ISG15 in mouse and human cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Oct 21;336(2):496-506. 16139798
  7. Dephoure N, Zhou C, Villen J, Beausoleil SA, Bakalarski CE, Elledge SJ, Gygi SP: A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10762-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805139105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. 18669648
  8. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. 19413330
  9. Guo M, Chong YE, Beebe K, Shapiro R, Yang XL, Schimmel P: The C-Ala domain brings together editing and aminoacylation functions on one tRNA. Science. 2009 Aug 7;325(5941):744-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1174343. 19661429
  10. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. 19608861
  11. Olsen JV, Vermeulen M, Santamaria A, Kumar C, Miller ML, Jensen LJ, Gnad F, Cox J, Jensen TS, Nigg EA, Brunak S, Mann M: Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis. Sci Signal. 2010 Jan 12;3(104):ra3. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2000475. 20068231
  12. Burkard TR, Planyavsky M, Kaupe I, Breitwieser FP, Burckstummer T, Bennett KL, Superti-Furga G, Colinge J: Initial characterization of the human central proteome. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jan 26;5:17. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-17. 21269460
  13. Bienvenut WV, Sumpton D, Martinez A, Lilla S, Espagne C, Meinnel T, Giglione C: Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-alpha-acetylation features. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 Jun;11(6):M111.015131. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M111.015131. Epub 2012 Jan 5. 22223895
  14. Van Damme P, Lasa M, Polevoda B, Gazquez C, Elosegui-Artola A, Kim DS, De Juan-Pardo E, Demeyer K, Hole K, Larrea E, Timmerman E, Prieto J, Arnesen T, Sherman F, Gevaert K, Aldabe R: N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul 31;109(31):12449-54. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210303109. Epub 2012 Jul 18. 22814378
  15. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. 24275569
  16. Simons C, Griffin LB, Helman G, Golas G, Pizzino A, Bloom M, Murphy JL, Crawford J, Evans SH, Topper S, Whitehead MT, Schreiber JM, Chapman KA, Tifft C, Lu KB, Gamper H, Shigematsu M, Taft RJ, Antonellis A, Hou YM, Vanderver A: Loss-of-function alanyl-tRNA synthetase mutations cause an autosomal-recessive early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with persistent myelination defect. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Apr 2;96(4):675-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.02.012. Epub 2015 Mar 26. 25817015
  17. Vaca Jacome AS, Rabilloud T, Schaeffer-Reiss C, Rompais M, Ayoub D, Lane L, Bairoch A, Van Dorsselaer A, Carapito C: N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome. Proteomics. 2015 Jul;15(14):2519-24. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201400617. Epub 2015 Jun 8. 25944712
  18. Latour P, Thauvin-Robinet C, Baudelet-Mery C, Soichot P, Cusin V, Faivre L, Locatelli MC, Mayencon M, Sarcey A, Broussolle E, Camu W, David A, Rousson R: A major determinant for binding and aminoacylation of tRNA(Ala) in cytoplasmic Alanyl-tRNA synthetase is mutated in dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Jan;86(1):77-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.12.005. Epub 2009 Dec 31. 20045102
  19. Lin KP, Soong BW, Yang CC, Huang LW, Chang MH, Lee IH, Antonellis A, Lee YC: The mutational spectrum in a cohort of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 among the Han Chinese in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e29393. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029393. Epub 2011 Dec 19. 22206013
  20. McLaughlin HM, Sakaguchi R, Giblin W, Wilson TE, Biesecker L, Lupski JR, Talbot K, Vance JM, Zuchner S, Lee YC, Kennerson M, Hou YM, Nicholson G, Antonellis A: A recurrent loss-of-function alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) mutation in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2N (CMT2N). Hum Mutat. 2012 Jan;33(1):244-53. doi: 10.1002/humu.21635. Epub 2011 Nov 9. 22009580
  21. Schabhuttl M, Wieland T, Senderek J, Baets J, Timmerman V, De Jonghe P, Reilly MM, Stieglbauer K, Laich E, Windhager R, Erwa W, Trajanoski S, Strom TM, Auer-Grumbach M: Whole-exome sequencing in patients with inherited neuropathies: outcome and challenges. J Neurol. 2014 May;261(5):970-82. doi: 10.1007/s00415-014-7289-8. Epub 2014 Mar 15. 24627108