You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
NameThymosin beta-4
  • Fx
  • T beta-4
  • TB4X
  • THYB4
  • TMSB4
Gene NameTMSB4X
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0013427|Thymosin beta-4
Number of residues44
Molecular Weight5052.625
Theoretical pINot Available
GO Classification
  • poly(A) RNA binding
  • blood coagulation
  • platelet activation
  • platelet degranulation
  • actin filament organization
  • cytoskeleton
  • extracellular region
  • platelet alpha granule lumen
General FunctionPoly(a) rna binding
Specific FunctionPlays an important role in the organization of the cytoskeleton (By similarity). Binds to and sequesters actin monomers (G actin) and therefore inhibits actin polymerization.Seraspenide inhibits the entry of hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells into the S-phase.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein IDNot Available
UniProtKB IDP62328
UniProtKB Entry NameTYB4_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0013428|Thymosin beta-4 (TMSB4X)
GenBank Gene IDNot Available
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDNot Available
Chromosome LocationX
LocusNot Available
  1. Gondo H, Kudo J, White JW, Barr C, Selvanayagam P, Saunders GF: Differential expression of the human thymosin-beta 4 gene in lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes. J Immunol. 1987 Dec 1;139(11):3840-8. 3500230
  2. Yang SP, Lee HJ, Su Y: Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the functional human thymosin beta4 gene. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Apr;272(1-2):97-105. 16010977
  3. Safer D, Elzinga M, Nachmias VT: Thymosin beta 4 and Fx, an actin-sequestering peptide, are indistinguishable. J Biol Chem. 1991 Mar 5;266(7):4029-32. 1999398
  4. Azkargorta M, Soria J, Ojeda C, Guzman F, Acera A, Iloro I, Suarez T, Elortza F: Human Basal Tear Peptidome Characterization by CID, HCD, and ETD Followed by in Silico and in Vitro Analyses for Antimicrobial Peptide Identification. J Proteome Res. 2015 Jun 5;14(6):2649-58. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00179. Epub 2015 May 20. 25946035
  5. Friedman RL, Manly SP, McMahon M, Kerr IM, Stark GR: Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of interferon-induced gene expression in human cells. Cell. 1984 Oct;38(3):745-55. 6548414
  6. Dephoure N, Zhou C, Villen J, Beausoleil SA, Bakalarski CE, Elledge SJ, Gygi SP: A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10762-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805139105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. 18669648
  7. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. 19608861
  8. Olsen JV, Vermeulen M, Santamaria A, Kumar C, Miller ML, Jensen LJ, Gnad F, Cox J, Jensen TS, Nigg EA, Brunak S, Mann M: Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis. Sci Signal. 2010 Jan 12;3(104):ra3. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2000475. 20068231
  9. Burkard TR, Planyavsky M, Kaupe I, Breitwieser FP, Burckstummer T, Bennett KL, Superti-Furga G, Colinge J: Initial characterization of the human central proteome. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jan 26;5:17. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-17. 21269460
  10. Rigbolt KT, Prokhorova TA, Akimov V, Henningsen J, Johansen PT, Kratchmarova I, Kassem M, Mann M, Olsen JV, Blagoev B: System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Sci Signal. 2011 Mar 15;4(164):rs3. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2001570. 21406692
  11. Bienvenut WV, Sumpton D, Martinez A, Lilla S, Espagne C, Meinnel T, Giglione C: Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-alpha-acetylation features. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 Jun;11(6):M111.015131. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M111.015131. Epub 2012 Jan 5. 22223895
  12. Simenel C, Van Troys M, Vandekerckhove J, Ampe C, Delepierre M: Structural requirements for thymosin beta4 in its contact with actin. An NMR-analysis of thymosin beta4 mutants in solution and correlation with their biological activity. Eur J Biochem. 2000 Jun;267(12):3530-8. 10848969
  13. Durer ZA, Kudryashov DS, Sawaya MR, Altenbach C, Hubbell W, Reisler E: Structural states and dynamics of the D-loop in actin. Biophys J. 2012 Sep 5;103(5):930-9. 23009842