You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
NameHistone H3.1
Synonyms
  • H3FA
  • H3FB
  • H3FC
  • H3FD
  • H3FF
  • H3FH
  • H3FI
  • H3FJ
  • H3FK
  • H3FL
  • Histone H3/a
  • Histone H3/b
  • Histone H3/c
  • Histone H3/d
  • Histone H3/f
  • Histone H3/h
  • Histone H3/i
  • Histone H3/j
  • Histone H3/k
  • Histone H3/l
Gene NameHIST1H3A
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0017602|Histone H3.1
MARTKQTARKSTGGKAPRKQLATKAARKSAPATGGVKKPHRYRPGTVALREIRRYQKSTE
LLIRKLPFQRLVREIAQDFKTDLRFQSSAVMALQEACEAYLVGLFEDTNLCAIHAKRVTI
MPKDIQLARRIRGERA
Number of residues136
Molecular Weight15403.925
Theoretical pINot Available
GO Classification
Functions
  • histone binding
  • DNA binding
Processes
  • regulation of gene silencing
  • cellular protein metabolic process
  • protein heterotetramerization
  • positive regulation of defense response to virus by host
  • xenophagy
  • DNA methylation on cytosine
  • negative regulation of gene expression, epigenetic
  • regulation of gene expression, epigenetic
  • blood coagulation
  • chromatin organization
  • gene silencing by RNA
  • small GTPase mediated signal transduction
  • chromatin silencing at rDNA
  • gene expression
  • nucleosome assembly
  • DNA replication-dependent nucleosome assembly
Components
  • membrane
  • protein complex
  • extracellular region
  • nuclear chromosome
  • nuclear nucleosome
  • nucleus
  • nucleosome
  • extracellular exosome
  • nucleoplasm
General FunctionHistone binding
Specific FunctionCore component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein IDNot Available
UniProtKB IDP68431
UniProtKB Entry NameH31_HUMAN
Cellular LocationNucleus
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0017603|Histone H3.1 (HIST1H3A)
ATGGCTCGCACTAAGCAAACTGCTCGGAAGTCTACTGGTGGCAAGGCGCCACGCAAACAG
TTGGCCACTAAGGCAGCCCGCAAAAGCGCTCCGGCCACCGGCGGCGTGAAAAAGCCCCAC
CGCTACCGGCCGGGCACCGTGGCTCTGCGCGAGATCCGCCGTTATCAGAAGTCCACTGAA
CTGCTTATTCGTAAACTACCTTTCCAGCGCCTGGTGCGCGAGATTGCGCAGGACTTTAAA
ACAGACCTGCGTTTCCAGAGCTCCGCTGTGATGGCTCTGCAGGAGGCGTGCGAGGCCTAC
TTGGTAGGGCTATTTGAGGACACTAACCTGTGCGCCATCCACGCCAAGCGCGTCACTATC
ATGCCCAAGGACATCCAGCTCGCCCGCCGCATCCGCGGAGAGAGGGCGTGA
GenBank Gene IDNot Available
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDNot Available
HGNC IDHGNC:4766
Chromosome Location6
LocusNot Available
References
  1. Zhong R, Roeder RG, Heintz N: The primary structure and expression of four cloned human histone genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Nov 11;11(21):7409-25. 6647026
  2. Marashi F, Helms S, Shiels A, Silverstein S, Greenspan DS, Stein G, Stein J: Enhancer-facilitated expression of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes using human histone gene 5' regulatory sequences. Biochem Cell Biol. 1986 Apr;64(4):277-89. 3013246
  3. Albig W, Kardalinou E, Drabent B, Zimmer A, Doenecke D: Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes. Genomics. 1991 Aug;10(4):940-8. 1916825
  4. Kardalinou E, Eick S, Albig W, Doenecke D: Association of a human H1 histone gene with an H2A pseudogene and genes encoding H2B.1 and H3.1 histones. J Cell Biochem. 1993 Aug;52(4):375-83. 8227173
  5. Albig W, Meergans T, Doenecke D: Characterization of the H1.5 gene completes the set of human H1 subtype genes. Gene. 1997 Jan 15;184(2):141-8. 9031620
  6. Albig W, Kioschis P, Poustka A, Meergans K, Doenecke D: Human histone gene organization: nonregular arrangement within a large cluster. Genomics. 1997 Mar 1;40(2):314-22. 9119399
  7. Albig W, Doenecke D: The human histone gene cluster at the D6S105 locus. Hum Genet. 1997 Dec;101(3):284-94. 9439656
  8. Marzluff WF, Gongidi P, Woods KR, Jin J, Maltais LJ: The human and mouse replication-dependent histone genes. Genomics. 2002 Nov;80(5):487-98. 12408966
  9. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. 14702039
  10. Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J, Beck S: The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. Nature. 2003 Oct 23;425(6960):805-11. 14574404
  11. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. 15489334
  12. Ohe Y, Iwai K: Human spleen histone H3. Isolation and amino acid sequence. J Biochem. 1981 Oct;90(4):1205-11. 7309716
  13. Garcia BA, Barber CM, Hake SB, Ptak C, Turner FB, Busby SA, Shabanowitz J, Moran RG, Allis CD, Hunt DF: Modifications of human histone H3 variants during mitosis. Biochemistry. 2005 Oct 4;44(39):13202-13. 16185088
  14. Goto H, Tomono Y, Ajiro K, Kosako H, Fujita M, Sakurai M, Okawa K, Iwamatsu A, Okigaki T, Takahashi T, Inagaki M: Identification of a novel phosphorylation site on histone H3 coupled with mitotic chromosome condensation. J Biol Chem. 1999 Sep 3;274(36):25543-9. 10464286
  15. Lachner M, O'Carroll D, Rea S, Mechtler K, Jenuwein T: Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins. Nature. 2001 Mar 1;410(6824):116-20. 11242053
  16. Goto H, Yasui Y, Nigg EA, Inagaki M: Aurora-B phosphorylates Histone H3 at serine28 with regard to the mitotic chromosome condensation. Genes Cells. 2002 Jan;7(1):11-7. 11856369
  17. Preuss U, Landsberg G, Scheidtmann KH: Novel mitosis-specific phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 mediated by Dlk/ZIP kinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Feb 1;31(3):878-85. 12560483
  18. Ananthanarayanan M, Li S, Balasubramaniyan N, Suchy FJ, Walsh MJ: Ligand-dependent activation of the farnesoid X-receptor directs arginine methylation of histone H3 by CARM1. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 24;279(52):54348-57. Epub 2004 Oct 6. 15471871
  19. Huyen Y, Zgheib O, Ditullio RA Jr, Gorgoulis VG, Zacharatos P, Petty TJ, Sheston EA, Mellert HS, Stavridi ES, Halazonetis TD: Methylated lysine 79 of histone H3 targets 53BP1 to DNA double-strand breaks. Nature. 2004 Nov 18;432(7015):406-11. Epub 2004 Nov 3. 15525939
  20. Wang Y, Wysocka J, Sayegh J, Lee YH, Perlin JR, Leonelli L, Sonbuchner LS, McDonald CH, Cook RG, Dou Y, Roeder RG, Clarke S, Stallcup MR, Allis CD, Coonrod SA: Human PAD4 regulates histone arginine methylation levels via demethylimination. Science. 2004 Oct 8;306(5694):279-83. Epub 2004 Sep 2. 15345777
  21. Dai J, Sultan S, Taylor SS, Higgins JM: The kinase haspin is required for mitotic histone H3 Thr 3 phosphorylation and normal metaphase chromosome alignment. Genes Dev. 2005 Feb 15;19(4):472-88. Epub 2005 Jan 28. 15681610
  22. Choi HS, Choi BY, Cho YY, Zhu F, Bode AM, Dong Z: Phosphorylation of Ser28 in histone H3 mediated by mixed lineage kinase-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase alpha. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 8;280(14):13545-53. Epub 2005 Jan 31. 15684425
  23. Coon JJ, Ueberheide B, Syka JE, Dryhurst DD, Ausio J, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF: Protein identification using sequential ion/ion reactions and tandem mass spectrometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 5;102(27):9463-8. Epub 2005 Jun 27. 15983376
  24. Hake SB, Garcia BA, Duncan EM, Kauer M, Dellaire G, Shabanowitz J, Bazett-Jones DP, Allis CD, Hunt DF: Expression patterns and post-translational modifications associated with mammalian histone H3 variants. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 6;281(1):559-68. Epub 2005 Nov 2. 16267050
  25. Thomas CE, Kelleher NL, Mizzen CA: Mass spectrometric characterization of human histone H3: a bird's eye view. J Proteome Res. 2006 Feb;5(2):240-7. 16457588
  26. Wang H, Zhai L, Xu J, Joo HY, Jackson S, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Xiong Y, Zhang Y: Histone H3 and H4 ubiquitylation by the CUL4-DDB-ROC1 ubiquitin ligase facilitates cellular response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2006 May 5;22(3):383-94. 16678110
  27. Beck HC, Nielsen EC, Matthiesen R, Jensen LH, Sehested M, Finn P, Grauslund M, Hansen AM, Jensen ON: Quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications of human histones. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006 Jul;5(7):1314-25. Epub 2006 Apr 20. 16627869
  28. Miao F, Li S, Chavez V, Lanting L, Natarajan R: Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase-1 enhances nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated gene transcription through methylation of histone H3 at arginine 17. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Jul;20(7):1562-73. Epub 2006 Feb 23. 16497732
  29. Arita K, Shimizu T, Hashimoto H, Hidaka Y, Yamada M, Sato M: Structural basis for histone N-terminal recognition by human peptidylarginine deiminase 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 4;103(14):5291-6. Epub 2006 Mar 27. 16567635
  30. Hyllus D, Stein C, Schnabel K, Schiltz E, Imhof A, Dou Y, Hsieh J, Bauer UM: PRMT6-mediated methylation of R2 in histone H3 antagonizes H3 K4 trimethylation. Genes Dev. 2007 Dec 15;21(24):3369-80. 18079182
  31. Garcia BA, Hake SB, Diaz RL, Kauer M, Morris SA, Recht J, Shabanowitz J, Mishra N, Strahl BD, Allis CD, Hunt DF: Organismal differences in post-translational modifications in histones H3 and H4. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 9;282(10):7641-55. Epub 2006 Dec 28. 17194708
  32. Morris SA, Rao B, Garcia BA, Hake SB, Diaz RL, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Allis CD, Lieb JD, Strahl BD: Identification of histone H3 lysine 36 acetylation as a highly conserved histone modification. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 9;282(10):7632-40. Epub 2006 Dec 21. 17189264
  33. Guccione E, Bassi C, Casadio F, Martinato F, Cesaroni M, Schuchlautz H, Luscher B, Amati B: Methylation of histone H3R2 by PRMT6 and H3K4 by an MLL complex are mutually exclusive. Nature. 2007 Oct 18;449(7164):933-7. Epub 2007 Sep 26. 17898714
  34. Shimada M, Niida H, Zineldeen DH, Tagami H, Tanaka M, Saito H, Nakanishi M: Chk1 is a histone H3 threonine 11 kinase that regulates DNA damage-induced transcriptional repression. Cell. 2008 Jan 25;132(2):221-32. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2007.12.013. 18243098
  35. Iberg AN, Espejo A, Cheng D, Kim D, Michaud-Levesque J, Richard S, Bedford MT: Arginine methylation of the histone H3 tail impedes effector binding. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 8;283(6):3006-10. Epub 2007 Dec 11. 18077460
  36. Metzger E, Yin N, Wissmann M, Kunowska N, Fischer K, Friedrichs N, Patnaik D, Higgins JM, Potier N, Scheidtmann KH, Buettner R, Schule R: Phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 11 establishes a novel chromatin mark for transcriptional regulation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008 Jan;10(1):53-60. Epub 2007 Dec 9. 18066052
  37. Manohar M, Mooney AM, North JA, Nakkula RJ, Picking JW, Edon A, Fishel R, Poirier MG, Ottesen JJ: Acetylation of histone H3 at the nucleosome dyad alters DNA-histone binding. J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 28;284(35):23312-21. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.003202. Epub 2009 Jun 11. 19520870
  38. Dawson MA, Bannister AJ, Gottgens B, Foster SD, Bartke T, Green AR, Kouzarides T: JAK2 phosphorylates histone H3Y41 and excludes HP1alpha from chromatin. Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461(7265):819-22. doi: 10.1038/nature08448. Epub 2009 Sep 27. 19783980
  39. Vermeulen M, Eberl HC, Matarese F, Marks H, Denissov S, Butter F, Lee KK, Olsen JV, Hyman AA, Stunnenberg HG, Mann M: Quantitative interaction proteomics and genome-wide profiling of epigenetic histone marks and their readers. Cell. 2010 Sep 17;142(6):967-80. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.08.020. 20850016
  40. Metzger E, Imhof A, Patel D, Kahl P, Hoffmeyer K, Friedrichs N, Muller JM, Greschik H, Kirfel J, Ji S, Kunowska N, Beisenherz-Huss C, Gunther T, Buettner R, Schule R: Phosphorylation of histone H3T6 by PKCbeta(I) controls demethylation at histone H3K4. Nature. 2010 Apr 1;464(7289):792-6. doi: 10.1038/nature08839. Epub 2010 Mar 14. 20228790
  41. Tan M, Luo H, Lee S, Jin F, Yang JS, Montellier E, Buchou T, Cheng Z, Rousseaux S, Rajagopal N, Lu Z, Ye Z, Zhu Q, Wysocka J, Ye Y, Khochbin S, Ren B, Zhao Y: Identification of 67 histone marks and histone lysine crotonylation as a new type of histone modification. Cell. 2011 Sep 16;146(6):1016-28. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.008. 21925322
  42. Yu Y, Song C, Zhang Q, DiMaggio PA, Garcia BA, York A, Carey MF, Grunstein M: Histone H3 lysine 56 methylation regulates DNA replication through its interaction with PCNA. Mol Cell. 2012 Apr 13;46(1):7-17. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.01.019. Epub 2012 Mar 1. 22387026
  43. Herranz N, Dave N, Millanes-Romero A, Morey L, Diaz VM, Lorenz-Fonfria V, Gutierrez-Gallego R, Jeronimo C, Di Croce L, Garcia de Herreros A, Peiro S: Lysyl oxidase-like 2 deaminates lysine 4 in histone H3. Mol Cell. 2012 May 11;46(3):369-76. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.03.002. Epub 2012 Apr 5. 22483618
  44. Tropberger P, Pott S, Keller C, Kamieniarz-Gdula K, Caron M, Richter F, Li G, Mittler G, Liu ET, Buhler M, Margueron R, Schneider R: Regulation of transcription through acetylation of H3K122 on the lateral surface of the histone octamer. Cell. 2013 Feb 14;152(4):859-72. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.032. 23415232
  45. Vaca Jacome AS, Rabilloud T, Schaeffer-Reiss C, Rompais M, Ayoub D, Lane L, Bairoch A, Van Dorsselaer A, Carapito C: N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome. Proteomics. 2015 Jul;15(14):2519-24. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201400617. Epub 2015 Jun 8. 25944712
  46. Macdonald N, Welburn JP, Noble ME, Nguyen A, Yaffe MB, Clynes D, Moggs JG, Orphanides G, Thomson S, Edmunds JW, Clayton AL, Endicott JA, Mahadevan LC: Molecular basis for the recognition of phosphorylated and phosphoacetylated histone h3 by 14-3-3. Mol Cell. 2005 Oct 28;20(2):199-211. 16246723
  47. Flanagan JF, Mi LZ, Chruszcz M, Cymborowski M, Clines KL, Kim Y, Minor W, Rastinejad F, Khorasanizadeh S: Double chromodomains cooperate to recognize the methylated histone H3 tail. Nature. 2005 Dec 22;438(7071):1181-5. 16372014
  48. Tsunaka Y, Kajimura N, Tate S, Morikawa K: Alteration of the nucleosomal DNA path in the crystal structure of a human nucleosome core particle. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Jun 10;33(10):3424-34. Print 2005. 15951514