You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
NameGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
Synonyms
  • EAA4
  • Excitatory amino acid receptor 4
  • GluK2
  • GluR-6
  • GLUR6
  • Glutamate receptor 6
Gene NameGRIK2
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0001648|Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
MKIIFPILSNPVFRRTVKLLLCLLWIGYSQGTTHVLRFGGIFEYVESGPMGAEELAFRFA
VNTINRNRTLLPNTTLTYDTQKINLYDSFEASKKACDQLSLGVAAIFGPSHSSSANAVQS
ICNALGVPHIQTRWKHQVSDNKDSFYVSLYPDFSSLSRAILDLVQFFKWKTVTVVYDDST
GLIRLQELIKAPSRYNLRLKIRQLPADTKDAKPLLKEMKRGKEFHVIFDCSHEMAAGILK
QALAMGMMTEYYHYIFTTLDLFALDVEPYRYSGVNMTGFRILNTENTQVSSIIEKWSMER
LQAPPKPDSGLLDGFMTTDAALMYDAVHVVSVAVQQFPQMTVSSLQCNRHKPWRFGTRFM
SLIKEAHWEGLTGRITFNKTNGLRTDFDLDVISLKEEGLEKIGTWDPASGLNMTESQKGK
PANITDSLSNRSLIVTTILEEPYVLFKKSDKPLYGNDRFEGYCIDLLRELSTILGFTYEI
RLVEDGKYGAQDDANGQWNGMVRELIDHKADLAVAPLAITYVREKVIDFSKPFMTLGISI
LYRKPNGTNPGVFSFLNPLSPDIWMYILLAYLGVSCVLFVIARFSPYEWYNPHPCNPDSD
VVENNFTLLNSFWFGVGALMQQGSELMPKALSTRIVGGIWWFFTLIIISSYTANLAAFLT
VERMESPIDSADDLAKQTKIEYGAVEDGATMTFFKKSKISTYDKMWAFMSSRRQSVLVKS
NEEGIQRVLTSDYAFLMESTTIEFVTQRNCNLTQIGGLIDSKGYGVGTPMGSPYRDKITI
AILQLQEEGKLHMMKEKWWRGNGCPEEESKEASALGVQNIGGIFIVLAAGLVLSVFVAVG
EFLYKSKKNAQLEKRSFCSAMVEELRMSLKCQRRLKHKPQAPVIVKTEEVINMHTFNDRR
LPGKETMA
Number of residues908
Molecular Weight102582.475
Theoretical pI8.01
GO Classification
Functions
  • extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity
  • kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Processes
  • excitatory postsynaptic potential
  • regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity
  • negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic
  • intracellular protein transport
  • modulation of synaptic transmission
  • synaptic transmission
  • glutamate receptor signaling pathway
  • inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  • ion transmembrane transport
  • regulation of short-term neuronal synaptic plasticity
  • synaptic transmission, glutamatergic
  • receptor clustering
  • behavioral fear response
  • cellular calcium ion homeostasis
  • ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway
  • neuronal action potential
  • positive regulation of synaptic transmission
  • neuron apoptotic process
  • positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process
  • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process
  • transport
  • regulation of JNK cascade
Components
  • postsynaptic membrane
  • kainate selective glutamate receptor complex
  • plasma membrane
  • cell junction
  • integral component of plasma membrane
  • dendrite
  • postsynaptic density
  • perikaryon
  • presynaptic membrane
  • dendrite cytoplasm
  • terminal bouton
General FunctionKainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific FunctionIonotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus. Modulates cell surface expression of NETO2 (By similarity).
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions562-582 636-656 820-840
GenBank Protein ID790532
UniProtKB IDQ13002
UniProtKB Entry NameGRIK2_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCell membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0020488|Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2 (GRIK2)
ATGAAGATTATTTTCCCGATTCTAAGTAATCCAGTCTTCAGGCGCACCGTTAAACTCCTG
CTCTGTTTACTGTGGATTGGATATTCTCAAGGAACCACACATGTATTAAGATTTGGTGGT
ATTTTTGAATATGTGGAATCTGGCCCAATGGGAGCTGAGGAACTTGCATTCAGATTTGCT
GTGAACACAATTAACAGAAACAGAACATTGCTACCCAATACTACCCTTACCTATGATACC
CAGAAGATAAACCTTTATGATAGTTTTGAAGCATCCAAGAAAGCCTGTGATCAGCTGTCT
CTTGGGGTGGCTGCCATCTTCGGGCCTTCACACAGCTCATCAGCAAACGCAGTGCAGTCC
ATCTGCAATGCTCTGGGAGTTCCCCACATACAGACCCGCTGGAAGCACCAGGTGTCAGAC
AACAAAGATTCCTTCTATGTCAGTCTCTACCCAGACTTCTCTTCACTCAGCCGTGCCATT
TTAGACCTGGTGCAGTTTTTCAAGTGGAAAACCGTCACGGTTGTGTATGATGACAGCACT
GGTCTCATTCGTTTGCAAGAGCTCATCAAAGCTCCATCAAGGTATAATCTTCGACTCAAA
ATTCGTCAGTTACCTGCTGATACAAAGGATGCAAAACCCTTACTAAAAGAAATGAAAAGA
GGCAAGGAGTTTCATGTAATCTTTGATTGTAGCCATGAAATGGCAGCAGGCATTTTAAAA
CAGGCATTAGCTATGGGAATGATGACAGAATACTATCATTATATCTTTACCACTCTGGAC
CTCTTTGCTCTTGATGTTGAGCCCTACCGATACAGTGGTGTTAACATGACAGGGTTCAGA
ATATTAAATACAGAAAATACCCAAGTCTCCTCCATCATTGAAAAGTGGTCGATGGAACGA
TTGCAGGCACCTCCGAAACCCGATTCAGGTTTGCTGGATGGATTTATGACGACTGATGCT
GCTCTAATGTATGATGCTGTGCATGTGGTGTCTGTGGCCGTTCAACAGTTTCCCCAGATG
ACAGTCAGTTCCTTGCAGTGTAATCGACATAAACCCTGGCGCTTCGGGACCCGCTTTATG
AGTCTAATTAAAGAGGCACATTGGGAAGGCCTCACAGGCAGAATAACTTTCAACAAAACC
AATGGCTTGAGAACAGATTTTGATTTGGATGTGATCAGTCTGAAGGAAGAAGGTCTAGAA
AAGATTGGAACGTGGGATCCAGCCAGTGGCCTGAATATGACAGAAAGTCAAAAGGGAAAG
CCAGCGAACATCACAGATTCCTTATCCAATCGTTCTTTGATTGTTACCACCATTTTGGAA
GAGCCTTATGTCCTTTTTAAGAAGTCTGACAAACCTCTCTATGGTAATGATCGATTTGAA
GGCTATTGCATTGATCTCCTCAGAGAGTTATCTACAATCCTTGGCTTTACATATGAAATT
AGACTTGTGGAAGATGGGAAATATGGAGCCCAGGATGATGCCAATGGACAATGGAATGGA
ATGGTTCGTGAACTAATTGATCATAAAGCTGACCTTGCAGTTGCTCCACTGGCTATTACC
TATGTTCGAGAGAAGGTCATCGACTTTTCCAAGCCCTTTATGACACTTGGAATAAGTATT
TTGTACCGCAAGCCCAATGGTACAAACCCAGGCGTCTTCTCCTTCCTGAATCCTCTCTCC
CCTGATATCTGGATGTATATTCTGCTGGCTTACTTGGGTGTCAGTTGTGTGCTCTTTGTC
ATAGCCAGGTTTAGTCCTTATGAGTGGTATAATCCACACCCTTGCAACCCTGACTCAGAC
GTGGTGGAAAACAATTTTACCTTGCTAAATAGTTTCTGGTTTGGAGTTGGAGCTCTCATG
CAGCAAGGTTCTGAGCTCATGCCCAAAGCACTGTCCACCAGGATAGTGGGAGGCATTTGG
TGGTTTTTCACACTTATCATCATTTCTTCGTATACTGCTAACTTAGCCGCCTTTCTGACA
GTGGAACGCATGGAATCCCCTATTGACTCTGCTGATGATTTAGCTAAACAAACCAAGATA
GAATATGGAGCAGTAGAGGATGGTGCAACCATGACTTTTTTCAAGAAATCAAAAATCTCC
ACGTATGACAAAATGTGGGCCTTTATGAGTAGCAGAAGGCAGTCAGTGCTGGTCAAAAGT
AATGAAGAAGGAATCCAGCGAGTCCTCACCTCTGATTATGCTTTCCTAATGGAGTCAACA
ACCATCGAGTTTGTTACCCAGCGGAACTGTAACCTGACACAGATTGGCGGCCTTATAGAC
TCTAAAGGTTATGGCGTTGGCACTCCCATGGGTTCTCCATATCGAGACAAAATTACCATA
GCAATTCTTCAGCTGCAAGAGGAAGGCAAACTGCATATGATGAAGGAGAAATGGTGGAGG
GGCAATGGTTGCCCAGAAGAGGAGAGCAAAGAGGCCAGTGCCCTGGGGGTTCAGAATATT
GGTGGCATCTTCATTGTTCTGGCAGCCGGCTTGGTGCTTTCAGTTTTTGTGGCAGTGGGA
GAATTTTTATACAAATCCAAAAAAAACGCTCAATTGGAAAAGAGAGCCAAGACTAAGTTA
CCTCAAGACTATGTATTCCTCCCTATTTTGGAGTCAGTTTCCATTTCTACAGTGTTGTCA
TCATCACCATCTTCATCATCATTATCATCATGTTCTTAA
GenBank Gene IDU16126
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDGRIK2
HGNC IDHGNC:4580
Chromosome Location6
Locus6q16.3-q21
References
  1. Hoo KH, Nutt SL, Fletcher EJ, Elliott CE, Korczak B, Deverill RM, Rampersad V, Fantaske RP, Kamboj RK: Functional expression and pharmacological characterization of the human EAA4 (GluR6) glutamate receptor: a kainate selective channel subunit. Receptors Channels. 1994;2(4):327-37. 7536611
  2. Paschen W, Blackstone CD, Huganir RL, Ross CA: Human GluR6 kainate receptor (GRIK2): molecular cloning, expression, polymorphism, and chromosomal assignment. Genomics. 1994 Apr;20(3):435-40. 8034316
  3. Barbon A, Vallini I, Barlati S: Genomic organization of the human GRIK2 gene and evidence for multiple splicing variants. Gene. 2001 Aug 22;274(1-2):187-97. 11675011
  4. Zhawar VK, Kaur G, deRiel JK, Kaur GP, Kandpal RP, Athwal RS: Novel spliced variants of ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR6 in normal human fibroblast and brain cells are transcribed by tissue specific promoters. Gene. 2010 Jul 1;459(1-2):1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2010.03.002. Epub 2010 Mar 15. 20230879
  5. Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J, Beck S: The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. Nature. 2003 Oct 23;425(6960):805-11. 14574404
  6. Paschen W, Hedreen JC, Ross CA: RNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR6 in human brain tissue. J Neurochem. 1994 Nov;63(5):1596-602. 7523595
  7. Nutt SL, Kamboj RK: RNA editing of human kainate receptor subunits. Neuroreport. 1994 Dec 20;5(18):2625-9. 7696618
  8. Piserchio A, Pellegrini M, Mehta S, Blackman SM, Garcia EP, Marshall J, Mierke DF: The PDZ1 domain of SAP90. Characterization of structure and binding. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 1;277(9):6967-73. Epub 2001 Dec 14. 11744724
  9. Wilkinson KA, Konopacki F, Henley JM: Modification and movement: Phosphorylation and SUMOylation regulate endocytosis of GluK2-containing kainate receptors. Commun Integr Biol. 2012 Mar 1;5(2):223-6. doi: 10.4161/cib.19195. 22808340
  10. Unno M, Shinohara M, Takayama K, Tanaka H, Teruya K, Doh-ura K, Sakai R, Sasaki M, Ikeda-Saito M: Binding and selectivity of the marine toxin neodysiherbaine A and its synthetic analogues to GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptors. J Mol Biol. 2011 Oct 28;413(3):667-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.08.043. Epub 2011 Aug 26. 21893069
  11. Sjoblom T, Jones S, Wood LD, Parsons DW, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE: The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74. Epub 2006 Sep 7. 16959974
  12. Motazacker MM, Rost BR, Hucho T, Garshasbi M, Kahrizi K, Ullmann R, Abedini SS, Nieh SE, Amini SH, Goswami C, Tzschach A, Jensen LR, Schmitz D, Ropers HH, Najmabadi H, Kuss AW: A defect in the ionotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene (GRIK2) is associated with autosomal recessive mental retardation. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Oct;81(4):792-8. Epub 2007 Aug 31. 17847003