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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:02 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0070
Identification
Common NameBenzofluoranthene
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBenzofluoranthene is one of over 100 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning organic substances, such as fossil fuels. They are usually found as a mixture containing two or more of these compounds. (4)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial By-product/Pollutant
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,2-benzfluoranthene
1,2-Benzfluoranthrene
1,2-Benzofluoranthene
Benz(a)aceanthrylene
Benzo(a)fluoranthene
Dibenzo(c,LM)fluorene
Chemical FormulaC20H12
Average Molecular Mass252.309 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass252.094 g/mol
CAS Registry Number56832-73-6
IUPAC Namepentacyclo[10.7.1.0²,⁷.0⁸,²⁰.0¹⁴,¹⁹]icosa-1(19),2,4,6,8(20),9,11,13,15,17-decaene
Traditional Namepentacyclo[10.7.1.0²,⁷.0⁸,²⁰.0¹⁴,¹⁹]icosa-1(19),2,4,6,8(20),9,11,13,15,17-decaene
SMILESC1=CC=C2C(=C1)C1=C3C2=C2C=CC=CC2=CC3=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C20H12/c1-2-8-15-13(6-1)12-14-7-5-11-17-16-9-3-4-10-18(16)20(15)19(14)17/h1-12H
InChI KeyInChIKey=OQDXASJSCOTNQS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anthracenes. These are organic compounds containing a system of three linearly fused benzene rings.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassAnthracenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAnthracenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Anthracene
  • Aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Polycyclic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.7e-06 g/LALOGPS
logP6.23ALOGPS
logP5.27ChemAxon
logS-7.7ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity83.17 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.3 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-9b4dfca3acd05da19b46JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-699fcec6c82b7a7e6d99JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0ufr-0090000000-51d3d09cd9290414c060JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-31f8cde7b8fb38348ad0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-31f8cde7b8fb38348ad0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-617d283ad6b054406a34JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe ability of PAH's to bind to blood proteins such as albumin allows them to be transported throughout the body. Many PAH's induce the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor or glycine N-methyltransferase protein. These enzymes metabolize PAH's into their toxic intermediates. The reactive metabolites of PAHs (epoxide intermediates, dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, and their various combinations) covalently bind to DNA and other cellular macromolecules, initiating mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (4, 5, 2, 3)
MetabolismPAH metabolism occurs in all tissues, usually by cytochrome P-450 and its associated enzymes. PAHs are metabolized into reactive intermediates, which include epoxide intermediates, dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, and their various combinations. The phenols, quinones, and dihydrodiols can all be conjugated to glucuronides and sulfate esters; the quinones also form glutathione conjugates. (4)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (6)
Uses/SourcesPAHs are released into the environment via the combustion of fossil fuels, coke oven emissions and vehicle exhausts, as well as naturally from forest fires and volcanic eruptions. PAHs from these sources may contaminate nearly water systems. They are also found in coal tar and charbroiled food. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPAHs are carcinogens and have been associated with the increased risk of skin, respiratory tract, bladder, stomach, and kidney cancers. They may also cause reproductive effects and depress the immune system. (4)
SymptomsAcute exposure to PAHs causes irritation and inflammation of the skin and lung tissue. (1)
TreatmentThere is no known antidote for PAHs. Exposure is usually handled with symptomatic treatment. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID9146
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDBenzofluoranthene
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0070.pdf
General References
  1. Santodonato J, Howard P, Basu D: Health and ecological assessment of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1981 Sep;5(1):1-364. [7310260 ]
  2. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  3. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
2. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glycine n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the methylation of glycine by using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to form N-methylglycine (sarcosine) with the concomitant production of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Possible crucial role in the regulation of tissue concentration of AdoMet and of metabolism of methionine.
Gene Name:
GNMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14749
Molecular Weight:
32742.0 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]