Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:07 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:09 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0120
Identification
Common NameStrontium-90
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionStrontium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, soil, dust, coal, and oil. Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium (Sr) with a half-life of 28.8 years. Strontium-90 is a product of nuclear fission and is obtained during nuclear reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and is a beta-emitter. Strontium 90 is extensively used in medicine and industry. Strontium-90 is a radioactivity hazard and is linked to cancers. (2, 4)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Radioactive
  • Radioactive Isotope
  • Strontium Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(99)Sr
99Sr
Sr-90
Strontium 90
Strontium, isotope of mass 90
Chemical FormulaSr
Average Molecular Mass89.908 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass89.908 g/mol
CAS Registry Number10098-97-2
IUPAC Name(⁹⁰Sr)strontium
Traditional Name(⁹⁰Sr)strontium
SMILES[90Sr]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Sr/i1+2
InChI KeyInChIKey=CIOAGBVUUVVLOB-NJFSPNSNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe fact that strontium is chemically similar to calcium allows it to exchange for calcium in bone. It affects bone development and strength by binding directly to hydroxyapatite crystals, which interferes with the normal crystalline structure of bone. Strontium can also interact with secondary cell messenger systems and transporter systems that normally use calcium. It is thought to bind to the calcium receptor of the parathyroid gland, thereby suppressing parathyroid hormone levels, preventing vitamin D3 activiation, and reducing calcium absorption. The ionizing radiation produced by strontium-90 causes cellular damage that includes DNA breakage, accurate or inaccurate repair, apoptosis, gene mutations, chromosomal change, and genetic instability. This leads to loss of normal cell and tissue homeostasis, and development of malignancy. Strontium's ability to mimick calcium makes bone cancer a particular risk. Ionizing radiation that does not directly damage DNA can produce reactive oxygen intermediates that directly affect the stability of p53, an important enzyme in cell-cycle regulation, and produce oxidative damage to individual bases in DNA and point mutations by mispairing during DNA replication. (3, 4)
MetabolismThe radioactivity of strontium-90 allow it to penetrate the body following inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure. Strontium-90 exhibits biochemical behavior similar to calcium. After entering the organism, about 70-80% of the dose is excreted. Virtually all remaining strontium-90 is deposited in bones and bone marrow, with the remaining 1% remaining in blood and soft tissues. The metabolism of strontium consists of binding interactions with proteins and, based on its similarity to calcium, probably complex formation with various inorganic anions such as carbonate and phosphate, and carboxylic acids such as citrate and lactate. Strontium-90 is eliminated mainly in the urine and faeces. (2)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (6)
Uses/SourcesStrontium-90 is widely used in medicine and industry, as a radioactive source for thickness gauges, and for superficial radiotherapy of some cancers. Being cheaper than the alternative 238Pu, it is used as a heat source in many Russian and Soviet radioisotope thermoelectric generators. It is also used as a radioactive tracer in medicine and agriculture. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 2 mg/kg/day (1)
Health EffectsHigh levels of radioactive strontium can damage bone marrow, cause anemia and prevent the blood from clotting properly. Strontium-90 present in bones could cause bone cancer, cancer of nearby tissues, and leukemia. (2, 4)
SymptomsHigh levels of radioactive strontium can damage bone marrow, cause anemia and prevent the blood from clotting properly. Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome, which can cause skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation, low blood pressure, headache, fatigue, weakness, fever, birth defects, illness, infection, and death. (3, 5, 4)
TreatmentTreatment reversing the effects of irradiation is currently not possible. Anaesthetics and antiemetics are administered to counter the symptoms of exposure, as well as antibiotics for countering secondary infections due to the resulting immune system deficiency. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID5486204
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4588902
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDStrontium-90
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkStrontium-90
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0120.pdf
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. Wikipedia. Strontium-90. Last Updated 20 June 2009. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for strontium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Radiation poisoning. Last Updated 22 August 2009. [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]