Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:07 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:09 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0122
Identification
Common NamePolonium-210
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPolonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie. A rare and highly radioactive metalloid, polonium is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores. When it is mixed or alloyed with beryllium, polonium can be a neutron source and has been used in this capacity as a neutron trigger or initiator for nuclear weapons. Polonium has also been studied for possible use in heating spacecraft. It is unstable and all isotopes of polonium are radioactive. It is one ingredient of cigarette. (2)
Compound Type
  • Cigarette Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Metalloid
  • Natural Compound
  • Plutonium Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Radioactive
  • Radioactive Isotope
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(210)84Po
(210)Po
210-Polonium
210Po
Polonium 210
Polonium, isotope of mass 210
Chemical FormulaPo
Average Molecular Mass209.983 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass209.983 g/mol
CAS Registry Number13981-52-7
IUPAC Name(²¹⁰Po)polanylidene
Traditional Name(²¹⁰Po)polanylidene
SMILES[210Po]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Po/i1+1
InChI KeyInChIKey=HZEBHPIOVYHPMT-OUBTZVSYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as homogeneous metalloid compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a metalloid atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
Sub ClassHomogeneous metalloid compounds
Direct ParentHomogeneous metalloid compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous metalloid
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (2); Inhalation (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe alpha radiation polonium emits does not penetrate the skin but can irradiate internal organs when polonium is inhaled or ingested. The ionizing radiation produced by plutonium causes cellular damage that includes DNA breakage, accurate or inaccurate repair, apoptosis, gene mutations, chromosomal change, and genetic instability. This leads to loss of normal cell and tissue homeostasis, and development of malignancy. Ionizing radiation that does not directly damage DNA can produce reactive oxygen intermediates that directly affect the stability of p53, an important enzyme in cell-cycle regulation, and produce oxidative damage to individual bases in DNA and point mutations by mispairing during DNA replication. (1, 2)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (4)
Uses/SourcesWhen it is mixed or alloyed with beryllium, polonium can be a neutron source and has been used in this capacity as a neutron trigger or initiator for nuclear weapons. Polonium has also been studied for possible use in heating spacecraft. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPolonium's radioactivity can cause cancer, especially of the lung, if ingested of inhaled. (2)
SymptomsExposure to high doses of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome, which can cause skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation, low blood pressure, headache, fatigue, weakness, fever, birth defects, illness, infection, and death. (1, 3)
TreatmentChelation agents such as British Anti-Lewisite (dimercaprol) can be used to decontaminate humans. Treatment reversing the effects of irradiation is currently not possible. Anaesthetics and antiemetics are administered to counter the symptoms of exposure, as well as antibiotics for countering secondary infections due to the resulting immune system deficiency. (3, 2)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6328544
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4886608
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID37340
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDPolonium-210
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. Wikipedia. Polonium. Last Updated 19 August 2009. [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Radiation poisoning. Last Updated 22 August 2009. [Link]
  4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]