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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:59:14 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:25 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0619
Identification
Common NameAnthracene
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAnthracene is one of over 100 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning organic substances, such as fossil fuels. They are usually found as a mixture containing two or more of these compounds. (4)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Food Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Anthracene oil
Anthraxcene
Bis-alkylamino anthracene
Coal tar pitch volatiles:anthracene
Green oil
p-naphthalene
Paranaphthalene
Polyacenes
Sterilite hop defoliant
Chemical FormulaC14H10
Average Molecular Mass178.229 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass178.078 g/mol
CAS Registry Number120-12-7
IUPAC Nameanthracene
Traditional Nameanthracene
SMILESC1=CC2=CC3=CC=CC=C3C=C2C=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C14H10/c1-2-6-12-10-14-8-4-3-7-13(14)9-11(12)5-1/h1-10H
InChI KeyInChIKey=MWPLVEDNUUSJAV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as anthracenes. These are organic compounds containing a system of three linearly fused benzene rings.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassBenzenoids
Sub ClassAnthracenes
Direct ParentAnthracenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Anthracene
  • Aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Polycyclic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point215.0°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility4.34e-05 mg/mL at 24°C [MAY,WE et al. (1983)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000484 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.56ALOGPS
logP3.95ChemAxon
logS-5.6ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity58.96 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability20.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-57a407595d8d4d4f8360View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-57a407595d8d4d4f8360View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-1900000000-7b27938dfa3a7a68eaf4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1441cd503a5c1f7bffa7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1441cd503a5c1f7bffa7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-d151e8f9f566ca0e402fView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004i-2900000000-675a19db0c1732536f9cView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe ability of PAH's to bind to blood proteins such as albumin allows them to be transported throughout the body. Many PAH's induce the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor or glycine N-methyltransferase protein. These enzymes metabolize PAH's into their toxic intermediates. The reactive metabolites of PAHs (epoxide intermediates, dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, and their various combinations) covalently bind to DNA and other cellular macromolecules, initiating mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (4, 5, 2, 3)
MetabolismPAH metabolism occurs in all tissues, usually by cytochrome P-450 and its associated enzymes. PAHs are metabolized into reactive intermediates, which include epoxide intermediates, dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, and their various combinations. The phenols, quinones, and dihydrodiols can all be conjugated to glucuronides and sulfate esters; the quinones also form glutathione conjugates. (4)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1470-2440 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (7) LD50: 430 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (6)
Uses/SourcesPAHs are released into the environment via the combustion of fossil fuels, coke oven emissions and vehicle exhausts, as well as naturally from forest fires and vocanic eruptions. PAHs from these sources may contaminate nearly water systems. They are also found in coal tar and charbroiled food. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPAHs are carcinogens and have been associated with the increased risk of skin, respiratory tract, bladder, stomach, and kidney cancers. They may also cause reproductive effects and depress the immune system. (4)
SymptomsAcute exposure to PAHs causes irritation and inflammation of the skin and lung tissue. (1)
TreatmentThere is no know antidote for PAHs. Exposure is usually handled with symptomatic treatment. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB07372
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID8418
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL333179
ChemSpider ID8111
KEGG IDC14315
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID35298
BioCyc IDCPD-9546
CTD IDC034020
Stitch IDAnthracene
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6362
Wikipedia LinkAnthracene
References
Synthesis Reference

Lucien E. Bourson, Serge Y. Delavarenne, Pierre Tellier, “1,2,3,4,4a,9a-Hexahydro-9,10-anthracene-dione, its preparation and its application to the delignification of lignocellulosic materials.” U.S. Patent US4235666, issued June, 1929.

MSDST3D0619.pdf
General References
  1. Santodonato J, Howard P, Basu D: Health and ecological assessment of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1981 Sep;5(1):1-364. [7310260 ]
  2. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  3. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  7. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2008). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for anthracene. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
2. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glycine n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the methylation of glycine by using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to form N-methylglycine (sarcosine) with the concomitant production of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Possible crucial role in the regulation of tissue concentration of AdoMet and of metabolism of methionine.
Gene Name:
GNMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14749
Molecular Weight:
32742.0 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]