Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-22 16:08:31 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:33 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1732
Identification
Common NameHydrogen bromide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionHydrogen bromide is a chemical compound of bromine. It forms hydrobromic acid, one of the strongest mineral acids known, when dissolved in water. Hydrogen bromide and its acid are mainly used for the production of inorganic bromides, especially the bromides of zinc, calcium, and sodium. They are also useful reagents for generating organobromine compounds. Bromine is a halogen element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. Diatomic bromine does not occur naturally, but bromine salts can be found in crustal rock. Hydrogen bromide is an extremely irritating and corrosive gas. According to ILO [1971], however, bromine produces a more marked toxic action. AIHA [1958] reported that for humans, 40 to 60 ppm bromine is dangerous for short exposure [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. Because hydrogen bromide is considered less irritating than bromine, an IDLH of 50 ppm is chosen.
Compound Type
  • Bromide Compound
  • Halogen
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Non-Metal
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Acide bromhydrique
Acido bromidrico
Anhydrous hydrobromic acid
Bromidohydrogen
Bromowodor
Bromure d'hydrogene
Bromwasserstoff
Broomwaterstof
HBR
Hydrobromic acid
Hydrobromic acid solution
Hydrogen bromide (HBr2)
Hydrogen bromide in acetic acid
Hydrogen bromide solution
Hydrogen dibromide
Hydrogenbromid
[HBR]
Chemical FormulaBrH
Average Molecular Mass80.912 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass79.926 g/mol
CAS Registry Number10035-10-6
IUPAC Namehydrogen bromide
Traditional Namehydrogen bromide
SMILESBr
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/BrH/h1H
InChI KeyInChIKey=CPELXLSAUQHCOX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as halogen hydrides. These are inorganic compounds in which the heaviest atom bonded to a hydrogen atom is a halogen.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHalogen organides
Sub ClassHalogen hydrides
Direct ParentHalogen hydrides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Halogen hydride
  • Inorganic hydride
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateGas
AppearanceColorless gas.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-7.25°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity9.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.69 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0059-9000000000-ff07455e0ac66b1668c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-d1e1c66f95d651afe765View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-d1e1c66f95d651afe765View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-d1e1c66f95d651afe765View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-1412ecbe8b6cb8e29876View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-1412ecbe8b6cb8e29876View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-1412ecbe8b6cb8e29876View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5) ; dermal (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityBromine is a powerful oxidizing agent and is able to release oxygen free radicals from the water in mucous membranes. These free radicals are also potent oxidizers and produce tissue damage. In additon, the formation of hydrobromic and bromic acids will result in secondary irritation. The bromide ion is also known to affect the central nervous system, causing bromism. This is believed to be a result of bromide ions substituting for chloride ions in the in actions of neurotransmitters and transport systems, thus affecting numerous synaptic processes. (5, 6, 1)
MetabolismBromine is mainly absorbed via inhalation, but may also enter the body through dermal contact. Bromine salts can be ingested. Due to its reactivity, bromine quickly forms bromide and may be deposited in the tissues, displacing other halogens. (5)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 76 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (8) LC50: 2858 ppm over 1 hour (Inhalation, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesHydrogen bromide and its acid are mainly used for the production of inorganic bromides, especially the bromides of zinc, calcium, and sodium. They are also useful reagents for generating organobromine compounds. (7)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsBromine vapour causes irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Elemental bromine also burns the skin. The bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant and chronic exposure produces neuronal effects. This is called bromism and can result in central reactions reaching from somnolence to coma, cachexia, exicosis, loss of reflexes or pathologic reflexes, clonic seizures, tremor, ataxia, loss of neural sensitivity, paresis, papillar edema of the eyes, abnormal speech, cerebral edema, delirium, aggressiveness, and psychoses. (4, 5, 6)
SymptomsBromine vapour causes irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Symptoms include lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, eye irritation with mucous secretions from the oropharyngeal and upper airways, coughing, dyspnoea, choking, wheezing, epistaxis, and headache. The bromide ion is a central nervous system depressant producing ataxia, slurred speech, tremor, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, dizziness, visual disturbances, unsteadiness, headaches, impaired memory and concentration, disorientation and hallucinations. This is called bromism. (5, 6)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID260
ChEMBL ID1231461
ChemSpider ID255
KEGG IDC13645
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID47266
BioCyc IDBR-
CTD IDD018054
Stitch IDHydrogen bromide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6178
Wikipedia LinkHydrogen_bromide
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1732.pdf
General References
  1. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. [17529981 ]
  2. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  3. Golomb, BA (1999). A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Volume 2: Pyridostigmine Bromide. Washington, DC: RAND.
  4. Wikipedia. Bromine. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  5. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Poison Information Monograph for Bromine. [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Potassium bromide. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Hydrobromic acid. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
  8. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2005). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for hydrogen bromide. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport.
Gene Name:
CLCN1
Uniprot ID:
P35523
Molecular Weight:
108625.435 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. May be important in urinary concentrating mechanisms.
Gene Name:
CLCNKA
Uniprot ID:
P51800
Molecular Weight:
75284.08 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. May be important in urinary concentrating mechanisms.
Gene Name:
CLCNKB
Uniprot ID:
P51801
Molecular Weight:
75445.3 Da
References
  1. Simchowitz L: Interactions of bromide, iodide, and fluoride with the pathways of chloride transport and diffusion in human neutrophils. J Gen Physiol. 1988 Jun;91(6):835-60. [3047312 ]
  2. Pusch M, Jordt SE, Stein V, Jentsch TJ: Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 1;515 ( Pt 2):341-53. [10050002 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Suzuki S, Kawakami K, Nakamura F, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Seino M: Bromide, in the therapeutic concentration, enhances GABA-activated currents in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Oct;19(2):89-97. [7843172 ]