Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-22 16:08:39 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:41 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1819
Identification
Common NameSelenium dioxide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSelenium dioxide is an oxide of selenium. It is used in organic synthesis, glass colorants, and as a toner in photographic developing. Selenium is a nonmetal element with the atomic number 34 and the chemical symbol Se. Selenium rarely occurs in its elemental state in nature and is usually found in sulfide ores such as pyrite, partially replacing the sulfur in the ore matrix. It may also be found in silver, copper, lead, and nickel minerals. Though selenium salts are toxic in large amounts, trace amounts of the element are necessary for cellular function in most animals, forming the active center of the enzymes glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and three known deiodinase enzymes. (4, 5)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Non-Metal
  • Pollutant
  • Selenium Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Selenium(IV) oxide
Selenous anhydride
Chemical FormulaO2Se
Average Molecular Mass110.960 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass111.906 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7446-08-4
IUPAC Name(oxo-λ⁴-selanylidene)oxidane
Traditional Nameselenium dioxide
SMILESO=[Se]=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/O2Se/c1-3-2
InChI KeyInChIKey=JPJALAQPGMAKDF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassOther non-metal organides
Sub ClassOther non-metal oxides
Direct ParentOther non-metal oxides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Other non-metal oxide
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
  • Peroxisome
  • Plasma Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
QuinolinesNot AvailableNot Available
Cell cycleNot Availablemap04110
Wnt signaling pathwayNot Availablemap04310
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060 map00620
Nitrogen MetabolismNot AvailableNot Available
Dna replicationNot Availablemap03030
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite crystals.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point340°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.56ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity16 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability4.1 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-31031d6f5cd6c44165ebView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-31031d6f5cd6c44165ebView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-31031d6f5cd6c44165ebView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-e1bc10bb3719b94ea43fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-e1bc10bb3719b94ea43fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-e1bc10bb3719b94ea43fView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicitySelenium readily substitutes for sulfur in biomolecules and in many biochemical reactions, especially when the concentration of selenium is high and the concentration of sulfur is low. Inactivation of the sulfhydryl enzymes necessary for oxidative reactions in cellular respiration, through effects on mitochondrial and microsomal electron transport, might contribute to acute selenium toxicity. Selenomethionine (a common organic selenium compound) also appears to randomly substitute for methionine in protein synthesis. This substitution may affect the structure and functionability of the protein, for example, by altering disulfide bridges. Inorganic forms of selenium appear to react with tissue thiols by redox catalysis, resulting in formation of reactive oxygen species and causing damage by oxidative stress. (3)
MetabolismSelenium may be absorbed through inhalation and ingestion, while some selenium compounds may also be absorbed dermally. Once in the body, selenium is distributed mainly to the liver and kidney. Selenium is an essential micronutrient and is a component of glutathione peroxidase, iodothyronine 5'-deiodinases, and thioredoxin reductase. Organic selenium is first metabolized into inorganic selenium. Inorganic selenium is reduced stepwise to the intermediate hydrogen selenide, which is either incorporated into selenoproteins after being transformed to selenophosphate and selenocysteinyl tRNA or excreted into the urine after being transformed into methylated metabolites of selenide. Elemental selenium is also methylated before excretion. Selenium is primarily eliminated in the urine and feces, but certain selenium compounds may also be exhaled. (3)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 23 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (6) LD50: 4 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (6) LD50: 3.6 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (6) LD50: 9 mg/kg (Intravenous, Mouse) (6) LD50: 4 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Rabbit) (6)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (2)
Uses/SourcesSelenium dioxide is used in organic synthesis, glass colorants, and as a toner in photographic developing. (5)
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Oral: 0.005 mg/kg/day (1)
Health EffectsChronic oral exposure to high concentrations of selenium compounds can produce a disease called selenosis. The major signs of selenosis are hair loss, nail brittleness, and neurological abnormalities (such as numbness and other odd sensations in the extremities). Animal studies have shown that selenium may also affect sperm production and the female reproductive cycle. (3)
SymptomsShort-term oral exposure to high concentrations of selenium may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Brief exposures to high levels of elemental selenium or selenium dioxide in air can result in respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, difficulty breathing, and stomach pains. Longer-term exposure to either of these air-borne forms can cause respiratory irritation, bronchial spasms, and coughing. (3)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID24007
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID22440
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDSelenium dioxide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1819.pdf
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for selenium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Selenium. Last Updated 7 June 2009. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Selenium dioxide. Last Updated 1 June 2009. [Link]
  6. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2005). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for selenium dioxide. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available