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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-24 17:05:53 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:04 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2019
Identification
Common Name4,4'-Dibromobiphenyl
ClassSmall Molecule
Description4,4'-Dibromobiphenyl is a polybrominated biphenyl. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are a group of 209 synthetic organic compounds with 1-10 bromine atoms attached to biphenyl. They can be used as flame retardants and may be added to the plastics used to make products like computer monitors, televisions, textiles, and plastic foams to make them difficult to burn. However, the use of PBBs is banned or restricted in most areas due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment. (3, 4)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Bromide Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Organobromide
  • Polybrominated Biphenyl
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
4'-Dibromo-biphenyl
4, 4'-Dibromodiphenyl
4,4'-Dibromo-1,1'-biphenyl
4,4'-Dibromodiphenyl
4,4-Dibromobiphenyl
Biphenyl, 4,4'-dibromo- (8CI)
P,p'-dibromobiphenyl
Chemical FormulaC12H8Br2
Average Molecular Mass312.000 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass309.899 g/mol
CAS Registry Number92-86-4
IUPAC Name1-bromo-4-(4-bromophenyl)benzene
Traditional Name4,4'-dibromobiphenyl
SMILESBrC1=CC=C(C=C1)C1=CC=C(Br)C=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H8Br2/c13-11-5-1-9(2-6-11)10-3-7-12(14)8-4-10/h1-8H
InChI KeyInChIKey=HQJQYILBCQPYBI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as polybrominated biphenyls. These are organic aromatic compounds containing a biphenyl moiety, which is substituted at two or more ring positions by a bromine atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBiphenyls and derivatives
Direct ParentPolybrominated biphenyls
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Polybrominated biphenyl
  • Halobenzene
  • Bromobenzene
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl bromide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organobromide
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless to white powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point164°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00054 g/LALOGPS
logP5.28ALOGPS
logP5.16ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity66.44 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability25.27 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-de294e7d005e745b315c2016-08-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-de294e7d005e745b315c2016-08-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-0229000000-10d0a9f337edd28f6b682016-08-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-b7307dd8f0bc5d25f3372016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-b7307dd8f0bc5d25f3372016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0019000000-96ec114f819ef50975812016-08-03View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0w29-4906000000-aa9fce0b84eeaa2390a72014-09-20View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe exact mechanism of toxicty of PBBs varies depending on the specific congener. The predominant interaction is believed to involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). PBBs bind to and activate the AhR, which in turn initiates the transcriptional upregulation of a number of genes, affecting biochemical and endocrine pathways, cell cycle regulation, morphogenesis, oxidative stress response, and various other processes. This results in the numerous toxic responses characteristic of PBBs. Some of the known induced genes include the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. (3)
MetabolismPBBs can be absorbed via oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Due to their lipophilic nature, PBBs, especially the highly brominated congeners, tend to accumulate in lipid-rich tissues such as the liver, adipose, skin, and breast milk. Certain PBB compounds are metabolized by the microsomal monooxygenase system catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 of the type induced by phenobarbital. The rate of metabolism may depends on the bromine substitution pattern. PBB congeners of low bromine content are transformed into hydroxylated derivatives that are predominately eliminated in the urine. Highly brominated congeners are either retained or excreted unchanged in the feces. (3)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2A, probably carcinogenic to humans. (2)
Uses/SourcesPBBs can be used as flame retardants and may be added to the plastics used to make products like computer monitors, televisions, textiles, and plastic foams to make them difficult to burn. However, the use of PBBs is banned or restricted in most areas due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment. (3, 4)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Oral: 0.01 mg/kg/day (1)
Health EffectsPBB exposure may cause weight loss, skin disorders (such as acne), nervous and immune systems effects, and effects on the liver, kidneys, and thyroid gland. (3)
SymptomsSymptoms of PBB exposure may include nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, joint pain, fatigue, and weakness. (4)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7110
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL8166
ChemSpider ID6843
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-946
CTD IDC065774
Stitch ID4,4'-Dibromobiphenyl
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D2019.pdf
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBBs and PBDEs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Polybrominated biphenyl. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBBs and PBDEs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]