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Record Information
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:26:12 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:49 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2702
Common Name(R)-lipoic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionLipoic acid is a vitamin-like antioxidant that acts as a free-radical scavenger. Alpha-lipoic acid is also known as thioctic acid. It is a naturally occurring compound that is synthesized by both plants and animals. Lipoic acid contains two thiol groups which may be either oxidized or reduced. The reduced form is known as dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA). Lipoic acid (Delta E= -0.288) is therefore capable of thiol-disulfide exchange, giving it antioxidant activity. Lipoate is a critical cofactor for aerobic metabolism, participating in the transfer of acyl or methylamine groups via the 2-Oxoacid dehydrogenase (2-OADH) or alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA. This activity results in the catabolism of the branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). Lipoic acid also participates in the glycine cleavage system(GCV). The glycine cleavage system is a multi-enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidation of glycine to form 5,10 methylene tetrahydrofolate, an important cofactor in nucleic acid synthesis. Since Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for many enzyme complexes, it is essential for aerobic life as we know it. This system is used by many organisms and plays a crucial role in the photosynthetic carbon cycle. Lipoic acid was first postulated to be an effective antioxidant when it was found it prevented vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency. It is able to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce other metabolites, such as glutathione or vitamins, maintaining a healthy cellular redox state. Lipoic acid has been shown in cell culture experiments to increase cellular uptake of glucose by recruiting the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the cell membrane, suggesting its use in diabetes. Studies of rat aging have suggested that the use of L-carnitine and lipoic acid results in improved memory performance and delayed structural mitochondrial decay. As a result, it may be helpful for people with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Antioxidant
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Micronutrient
  • Natural Compound
  • Nutraceutical
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
  • Supplement
  • Vitamin B Complex
Chemical Structure
(+)-alpha-Lipoic acid
(R)-(+)-lipoic acid
(R)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid
(R)-1,2-dithiolane-3-valeric acid
(R)-6,8-thioctic acid
(R)-Lipoic acid
1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid
1,2-dithiolane-3-valeric acid
5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)valeric acid
5-(dithiolan-3-yl)valeric acid
5-[3-(1,2-dithiolanyl)]pentanoic acid
6,8-thioctic acid
6,8-thiotic acid
6-thioctic acid
6-thiotic acid
Acetate-replacing factor
alpha-Lipoic acid
Lipoic acid
liponic acid
Thioctic acid
Thioctic acid d-form
α-lipoic acid
Chemical FormulaC8H14O2S2
Average Molecular Mass206.326 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass206.044 g/mol
CAS Registry Number62-46-4
IUPAC Name5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acid
Traditional Name6,8-thioctic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C8H14O2S2/c9-8(10)4-2-1-3-7-5-6-11-12-7/h7H,1-6H2,(H,9,10)
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as lipoic acids and derivatives. Lipoic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a lipoic acid moiety (or a derivative thereof), which consists of a pentanoic acid (or derivative) attached to the C3 carbon atom of a 1,2-dithiolane ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassLipoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentLipoic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Lipoic_acid_derivative
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Heterocyclic fatty acid
  • Thia fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • 1,2-dithiolane
  • Organic disulfide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Placenta
  • Skeletal Muscle
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009 map00910
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004 map00260
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point60.5°C
Boiling Point162.5°C
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.22 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity54.37 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0udi-4900000000-59fc063b5aa5a8b5db192021-09-24View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-04View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-04View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-50da42c94591e9a60c0f2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1346e3a528dca0514cf72021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 90V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-420a38a26d85b4091edb2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 75V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-24b63eebe2fd067ce4b82021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 15V, Negativesplash10-0229-6900000000-44bcc93e18aeabd9ee162021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Negativesplash10-03k9-9600000000-4f680dfeae7fa1ece57a2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-6f0b91016a33e202e49b2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 60V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-e3d4a7fe022cf20db0362021-09-20View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-052r-0920000000-cf913d1d1afc04e5450c2015-09-15View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0bti-5910000000-294c510229247ef63f202015-09-15View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0bvi-9600000000-f8f54eb79c5d4d5bef482015-09-15View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0920000000-5a823a30dd1fb434e5b12015-09-15View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0kmu-1910000000-6f491a68afd82922e71b2015-09-15View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-330e4766f82ed571497b2015-09-15View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-0970000000-0ae5b11a032d11c1ba6d2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-decf255617c1bbd69bfb2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-6900000000-eb58a3d8135ba85d42832021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0190000000-014d2ea36cfae0726a9e2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-5950000000-4e2dd5ccdcd5b0a936a02021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a59-9500000000-9bbbd7b252fb9a0b438d2021-10-12View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2016-09-22View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25.16 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2016-09-22View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of Toxicity(R)-lipoic acid is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismParaoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of OP exposure.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsSymptoms of low dose exposure include excessive salivation and eye-watering. Acute dose symptoms include severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Hypertension, hypoglycemia, anxiety, headache, tremor and ataxia may also result.
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00166
PubChem Compound ID6112
ChemSpider ID5886
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16494
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDLipoic Acid
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLipoic_Acid
Synthesis Reference

Joachim Paust, Peter Eckes, Wolfgang Siegel, Friedhelm Balkenhohl, Walter Dobler, Michael Hullmann, “Preparation of R/S-.gamma.-lipoic acid or R/S-.alpha.-lipoic acid.” U.S. Patent US5489694, issued July, 1961.

General References
  1. Perham RN: Swinging arms and swinging domains in multifunctional enzymes: catalytic machines for multistep reactions. Annu Rev Biochem. 2000;69:961-1004. [10966480 ]
  2. REED LJ, DeBUSK BG, GUNSALUS IC, HORNBERGER CS Jr: Crystalline alpha-lipoic acid; a catalytic agent associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase. Science. 1951 Jul 27;114(2952):93-4. [14854913 ]
  3. Henriksen EJ, Saengsirisuwan V: Exercise training and antioxidants: relief from oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003 Apr;31(2):79-84. [12715971 ]
  4. Arner ES, Nordberg J, Holmgren A: Efficient reduction of lipoamide and lipoic acid by mammalian thioredoxin reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Aug 5;225(1):268-74. [8769129 ]
  5. Loginov AS, Nilova TV, Bendikov EA, Petrakov AV: [Pharmacokinetics of preparations of lipoic acid and their effect on ATP synthesis, processes of microsomal and cytosol oxidation in hepatocytes in liver damage in man]. Farmakol Toksikol. 1989 Jul-Aug;52(4):78-82. [2509239 ]
  6. Baker H, Deangelis B, Baker ER, Hutner SH: A practical assay of lipoate in biologic fluids and liver in health and disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998 Sep;25(4-5):473-9. [9741583 ]
  7. Konrad D: Utilization of the insulin-signaling network in the metabolic actions of alpha-lipoic acid-reduction or oxidation? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005 Jul-Aug;7(7-8):1032-9. [15998258 ]
  8. Bruggraber SF, Leung PS, Amano K, Quan C, Kurth MJ, Nantz MH, Benson GD, Van de Water J, Luketic V, Roche TE, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME: Autoreactivity to lipoate and a conjugated form of lipoate in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec;125(6):1705-13. [14724823 ]
  9. Redden PR, Melanson RL, Douglas JA, Dick AJ: Acyloxymethyl acidic drug derivatives: in vitro hydrolytic reactivity. Int J Pharm. 1999 Apr 15;180(2):151-60. [10370185 ]
  10. Tankova T, Cherninkova S, Koev D: Treatment for diabetic mononeuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid. Int J Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;59(6):645-50. [15924591 ]
  11. Chevion S, Hofmann M, Ziegler R, Chevion M, Nawroth PP: The antioxidant properties of thioctic acid: characterization by cyclic voltammetry. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1997 Feb;41(2):317-27. [9063572 ]
  12. Barbiroli B, Medori R, Tritschler HJ, Klopstock T, Seibel P, Reichmann H, Iotti S, Lodi R, Zaniol P: Lipoic (thioctic) acid increases brain energy availability and skeletal muscle performance as shown by in vivo 31P-MRS in a patient with mitochondrial cytopathy. J Neurol. 1995 Jul;242(7):472-7. [7595680 ]
  13. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA, Candow DG: Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentration. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Sep;13(3):294-302. [14669930 ]
  14. Teichert J, Tuemmers T, Achenbach H, Preiss C, Hermann R, Ruus P, Preiss R: Pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in subjects with severe kidney damage and end-stage renal disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;45(3):313-28. [15703366 ]
  15. Haj-Yehia AI, Assaf P, Nassar T, Katzhendler J: Determination of lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. J Chromatogr A. 2000 Feb 18;870(1-2):381-8. [10722093 ]
  16. Nagamatsu M, Nickander KK, Schmelzer JD, Raya A, Wittrock DA, Tritschler H, Low PA: Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow, reduces oxidative stress, and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1995 Aug;18(8):1160-7. [7587852 ]
  17. Steinmann B, Gitzelmann R: Strychnine treatment attempted in newborn twins with severe nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1979;34(6):589-99. [541222 ]
  18. Lee WJ, Lee IK, Kim HS, Kim YM, Koh EH, Won JC, Han SM, Kim MS, Jo I, Oh GT, Park IS, Youn JH, Park SW, Lee KU, Park JY: Alpha-lipoic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction in obese rats via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec;25(12):2488-94. Epub 2005 Oct 13. [16224049 ]
  19. McCormick DB: A trail of research on cofactors: an odyssey with friends. J Nutr. 2000 Feb;130(2S Suppl):323S-330S. [10721897 ]
  20. Semenova TV, Azhitskii GIu, Sarnatskaia VV, Nikolaev VG: [Effect of various specific agents on the heat stability of human serum albumin]. Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1993 Sep-Oct;65(5):26-30. [8160293 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the radical-mediated insertion of two sulfur atoms into the C-6 and C-8 positions of the octanoyl moiety bound to the lipoyl domains of lipoate-dependent enzymes, thereby converting the octanoylated domains into lipoylated derivatives.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
41910.695 Da
  1. Morikawa T, Yasuno R, Wada H: Do mammalian cells synthesize lipoic acid? Identification of a mouse cDNA encoding a lipoic acid synthase located in mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 2001 Jun 1;498(1):16-21. [11389890 ]
  2. Yasuno R, Wada H: Biosynthesis of lipoic acid in Arabidopsis: cloning and characterization of the cDNA for lipoic acid synthase. Plant Physiol. 1998 Nov;118(3):935-43. [9808738 ]
  3. Ollagnier-de Choudens S, Fontecave M: The lipoate synthase from Escherichia coli is an iron-sulfur protein. FEBS Lett. 1999 Jun 18;453(1-2):25-8. [10403368 ]
  4. Wrenger C, Muller S: The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has distinct organelle-specific lipoylation pathways. Mol Microbiol. 2004 Jul;53(1):103-13. [15225307 ]
  5. Gunther S, McMillan PJ, Wallace LJ, Muller S: Plasmodium falciparum possesses organelle-specific alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes and lipoylation pathways. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Nov;33(Pt 5):977-80. [16246025 ]
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the transfer of the lipoyl group from lipoyl-AMP to the specific lysine residue of lipoyl domains of lipoate-dependent enzymes.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
42478.8 Da
  1. Gunther S, McMillan PJ, Wallace LJ, Muller S: Plasmodium falciparum possesses organelle-specific alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes and lipoylation pathways. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Nov;33(Pt 5):977-80. [16246025 ]
  2. Fujiwara K, Toma S, Okamura-Ikeda K, Motokawa Y, Nakagawa A, Taniguchi H: Crystal structure of lipoate-protein ligase A from Escherichia coli. Determination of the lipoic acid-binding site. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 30;280(39):33645-51. Epub 2005 Jul 25. [16043486 ]
  3. Gueguen V, Macherel D, Neuburger M, Pierre CS, Jaquinod M, Gans P, Douce R, Bourguignon J: Structural and functional characterization of H protein mutants of the glycine decarboxylase complex. J Biol Chem. 1999 Sep 10;274(37):26344-52. [10473591 ]
  4. Macherel D, Bourguignon J, Forest E, Faure M, Cohen-Addad C, Douce R: Expression, lipoylation and structure determination of recombinant pea H-protein in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1996 Feb 15;236(1):27-33. [8617275 ]
  5. Fujiwara K, Hosaka H, Matsuda M, Okamura-Ikeda K, Motokawa Y, Suzuki M, Nakagawa A, Taniguchi H: Crystal structure of bovine lipoyltransferase in complex with lipoyl-AMP. J Mol Biol. 2007 Aug 3;371(1):222-34. Epub 2007 May 26. [17570395 ]
General Function:
Sodium-dependent multivitamin transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports pantothenate, biotin and lipoate in the presence of sodium.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
68641.27 Da
  1. Prasad PD, Wang H, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Devoe LD, Ganapathy V: Molecular and functional characterization of the intestinal Na+-dependent multivitamin transporter. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999 Jun 1;366(1):95-106. [10334869 ]
  2. Dey S, Subramanian VS, Chatterjee NS, Rubin SA, Said HM: Characterization of the 5' regulatory region of the human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, hSMVT. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Mar 19;1574(2):187-92. [11955628 ]
  3. Griffin JB, Stanley JS, Zempleni J: Synthesis of a rabbit polyclonal antibody to the human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002 Jul;72(4):195-8. [12214555 ]
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>1000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10515
  1. Rosini M, Andrisano V, Bartolini M, Bolognesi ML, Hrelia P, Minarini A, Tarozzi A, Melchiorre C: Rational approach to discover multipotent anti-Alzheimer drugs. J Med Chem. 2005 Jan 27;48(2):360-3. [15658850 ]
General Function:
Translation initiation factor activity
Specific Function:
Component of the protein complex eIF4F, which is involved in the recognition of the mRNA cap, ATP-dependent unwinding of 5'-terminal secondary structure and recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
175489.41 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5016.56 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10515
  1. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin activating enzyme activity
Specific Function:
The heterodimer acts as a E1 ligase for SUMO1, SUMO2, SUMO3, and probably SUMO4. It mediates ATP-dependent activation of SUMO proteins followed by formation of a thioester bond between a SUMO protein and a conserved active site cysteine residue on UBA2/SAE2.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
38449.535 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC504.74 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 10515
  1. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]