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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:26:15 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2709
Identification
Common NamePhentermine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPhentermine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of dextroamphetamine. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity. Phentermine is an amphetamine that stimulates neurons to release or maintain high levels of a particular group of neurotransmitters known as catecholamines; these include dopamine and norepinephrine. High levels of these catecholamines tend to suppress hunger signals and appetite. The drug seems to inhibit reuptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, and seratonin through inhibition or reversal of the reuptake transporters. It may also inhibit MAO enzymes leaving more neurotransmitter available at the synapse.Phentermine (through catecholamine elevation) may also indirectly affect leptin levels in the brain. It is theorized that phentermine can raise levels of leptin which signal satiety. It is also theorized that increased levels of the catecholamines are partially responsible for halting another chemical messenger known as neuropeptide Y. This peptide initiates eating, decreases energy expenditure, and increases fat storage.
Compound Type
  • Adrenergic Agent
  • Amine
  • Anorexigenic Agent
  • Appetite Depressant
  • Central Nervous System Agent
  • Central Nervous System Stimulant
  • Drug
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Stimulant
  • Sympathomimetic
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(alpha,alpha)-Dimethylphenethylamine
Adipex-P
alpha,alpha-Dimethylphenethylamine
Duromine
Fastin
Fentermina
Ionamin
Obenix
Obestin-30
Phentercot
Phenterminum
Phentride
Pro-Fast
Suprenza
Teramine
Zantryl
Chemical FormulaC10H15N
Average Molecular Mass149.233 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass149.120 g/mol
CAS Registry Number122-09-8
IUPAC Name2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
Traditional Namephentermine
SMILESCC(C)(N)CC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H15N/c1-10(2,11)8-9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-7H,8,11H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=DHHVAGZRUROJKS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentAmphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point205°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility18.6 g/L
LogP1.9
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.76 g/LALOGPS
logP2.32ALOGPS
logP2.08ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.25ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity48.34 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-4b4613b0051412392011View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0ue9-0900000000-f2eb273dfd0ec45869c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0f89-2900000000-f527ee48b9e2784c178cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0159-4900000000-548f73a83354267c9f81View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-c7ab0aa268d14ae3da39View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-ce1c08c021fbc1cc5c8cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-2900000000-94b2b38953d359938c0aView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9100000000-7037d3f1fad22de72c33View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposurePhentermine is rapidly absorbed after oral ingestion.
Mechanism of ToxicityPhentermine is an amphetamine that stimulates neurons to release or maintain high levels of a particular group of neurotransmitters known as catecholamines; these include dopamine and norepinephrine. High levels of these catecholamines tend to suppress hunger signals and appetite. The drug seems to inhibit reuptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, and seratonin through inhibition or reversal of the reuptake transporters. It may also inhibit MAO enzymes leaving more neurotransmitter available at the synapse.Phentermine (through catecholamine elevation) may also indirectly affect leptin levels in the brain. It is theorized that phentermine can raise levels of leptin which signal satiety. It is also theorized that increased levels of the catecholamines are partially responsible for halting another chemical messenger known as neuropeptide Y. This peptide initiates eating, decreases energy expenditure, and increases fat storage.
MetabolismHepatic. Half Life: 16 to 31 hours
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 15 to 20 mg/kg (monkey).
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment and management of obesity.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsUsing large amounts of these drugs can result in a condition known as amphetamine psychosis -- which can result in auditory, visual and tactile hallucinations, intense paranoia, irrational thoughts and beliefs, delusions, and mental confusion. Using large amounts of these drugs can result in a condition known as amphetamine psychosis -- which can result in auditory, visual and tactile hallucinations, intense paranoia, irrational thoughts and beliefs, delusions, and mental confusion.
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include delirium, mania, self-injury, marked hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmia, hyperpyrexia, convulsion, coma, and circulatory collapse.
TreatmentManagement of acute phentermine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes lavage and sedation with a barbiturate. Acidification of the urine increases phentermine excretion. Intravenous phentolamine (REGITINE) has been suggested for possible acute, severe hypertension, if this complicates phentermine overdosage. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00191
HMDB IDHMDB14337
PubChem Compound ID4771
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1574
ChemSpider ID4607
KEGG IDC07438
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID8080
BioCyc IDCPD-7657
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDPhentermine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPhentermine
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Bray GA: A concise review on the therapeutics of obesity. Nutrition. 2000 Oct;16(10):953-60. [11054601 ]
  2. Nelson DL, Gehlert DR: Central nervous system biogenic amine targets for control of appetite and energy expenditure. Endocrine. 2006 Feb;29(1):49-60. [16622292 ]
  3. Drugs.com [Link]
  4. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB: Is phentermine an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase? A critical appraisal. Synapse. 1999 May;32(2):141-5. [10231134 ]
  2. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. [10799660 ]
  3. Kilpatrick IC, Traut M, Heal DJ: Monoamine oxidase inhibition is unlikely to be relevant to the risks associated with phentermine and fenfluramine: a comparison with their abilities to evoke monoamine release. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Oct;25(10):1454-8. [11673765 ]
  4. Nandigama RK, Newton-Vinson P, Edmondson DE: Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):865-9. [11911838 ]
  5. Rothman RB: Does phentermine inhibit monoamine oxidase? Lancet. 1999 Apr 17;353(9161):1362-3. [10218558 ]
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB: Is phentermine an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase? A critical appraisal. Synapse. 1999 May;32(2):141-5. [10231134 ]
  2. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. [10799660 ]
  3. Kilpatrick IC, Traut M, Heal DJ: Monoamine oxidase inhibition is unlikely to be relevant to the risks associated with phentermine and fenfluramine: a comparison with their abilities to evoke monoamine release. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Oct;25(10):1454-8. [11673765 ]
  4. Nandigama RK, Newton-Vinson P, Edmondson DE: Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):865-9. [11911838 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. John CE, Jones SR: Voltammetric characterization of the effect of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra slices. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1596-605. Epub 2007 Mar 16. [17459426 ]
  2. Johnson GJ, Leis LA, Dunlop PC, Weir EK: The effect of the anorectic agent, d-fenfluramine, and its primary metabolite, d-norfenfluramine, on intact human platelet serotonin uptake and efflux. J Thromb Haemost. 2003 Dec;1(12):2663-8. [14675103 ]
  3. Mekontso-Dessap A, Brouri F, Pascal O, Lechat P, Hanoun N, Lanfumey L, Seif I, Benhaiem-Sigaux N, Kirsch M, Hamon M, Adnot S, Eddahibi S: Deficiency of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene leads to cardiac fibrosis and valvulopathy in mice. Circulation. 2006 Jan 3;113(1):81-9. Epub 2005 Dec 27. [16380550 ]
  4. Rothman RB, Ayestas MA, Dersch CM, Baumann MH: Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 1999 Aug 24;100(8):869-75. [10458725 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release, 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake and in the regulation of extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, and thereby affects neural activity. May play a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including impulsive behavior. Required for normal proliferation of embryonic cardiac myocytes and normal heart development. Protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Plays a role in the adaptation of pulmonary arteries to chronic hypoxia. Plays a role in vasoconstriction. Required for normal osteoblast function and proliferation, and for maintaining normal bone density. Required for normal proliferation of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the intestine.
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50246598
References
  1. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Savage JE, Rauser L, McBride A, Hufeisen SJ, Roth BL: Evidence for possible involvement of 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiac valvulopathy associated with fenfluramine and other serotonergic medications. Circulation. 2000 Dec 5;102(23):2836-41. [11104741 ]
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
References
  1. John CE, Jones SR: Voltammetric characterization of the effect of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra slices. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1596-605. Epub 2007 Mar 16. [17459426 ]