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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:47 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3040
Identification
Common NameEphedrine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionEphedrine is only found in individuals who have consumed this drug. Ephedrine is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists. [PubChem] Ephedrine is similar in molecular structure to the well-known drugs phenylpropanolamine and methamphetamine, as well as to the important neurotransmitter epinephrine (adrenalin). Chemically, it is an alkaloid with a phenethylamine skeleton found in various plants in the genus Ephedra (family Ephedraceae). It works mainly by increasing the activity of norepinephrine (noradrenalin) on adrenergic receptors. It is most usually marketed as the hydrochloride or sulfate salt.
Compound Type
  • Adrenergic Agent
  • Amine
  • Central Nervous System Stimulant
  • Drug
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Sympathomimetic
  • Synthetic Compound
  • Vasoconstrictor Agent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(-)-Ephedrine
(1R,2S)-1-Phenyl-1-hydroxy-2-methylaminopropane
L(-)-Ephedrine
L-Ephedrine
L-erythro-2-(Methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol
Chemical FormulaC10H15NO
Average Molecular Mass165.232 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass165.115 g/mol
CAS Registry Number299-42-3
IUPAC Name(1R,2S)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol
Traditional Nameephedrine
SMILES[H][C@@](C)(NC)[C@]([H])(O)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H15NO/c1-8(11-2)10(12)9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-8,10-12H,1-2H3/t8-,10-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=KWGRBVOPPLSCSI-WPRPVWTQSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropanes. These are organic compounds containing a phenylpropane moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylpropanes
Direct ParentPhenylpropanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Secondary amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point34°C
Boiling Point255°C
Solubility6.36E+004 mg/L (at 30°C)
LogP1.13
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility8.26 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1ALOGPS
logP1.32ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.8 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0a4i-9300000000-5bdf33e08e94f0c0bd26View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-05di-9610000000-8f364065f58e7dd69444View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-33d551e262321705ae8aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014j-0900000000-32a84e7b7e5332fe2026View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-82640acc94773485568aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-bdfb6079227a418eb706View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-c04df5fb623578be67eaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00l2-1900000000-3a68bc210684b52a9fd8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0159-2900000000-e12bf9df640426404f1cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014j-0900000000-0218a677989aab76b176View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-3dd538034653edb47df1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-553c930e0970a8c1a866View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-0499cdf7955d013fca29View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-015a-1900000000-f6b6229ef8c2d7fd24abView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0159-2900000000-7c8549f8cd727886d67dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-bcbf5073df33d11415ccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00kb-0900000000-677d622716b4c2545f16View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00kb-2900000000-416def0e527ddf116a39View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0aou-9500000000-155625a572f19610e138View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-ea7e1b550b5dc0d6d41dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03dj-2900000000-f4de25860574bb60daf1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9600000000-62e375458e5f83795e90View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-bcc578719d003732d7f8View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral ; parenteral (intramuscular or intravenous injection). 85%.
Mechanism of ToxicityEphedrine is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
Metabolism Route of Elimination: mainly renal Half Life: 3-6 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesEphedrine commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant, and to treat hypotension associated with anaesthesia.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsSide-effects can include sweating, dry mouth, blurred vision, insomnia, loss of appetite, and dizziness. In addition users can feel restless, anxious and moody, become excitable and have a false sense of power and security. Amphetamine overdose can also cause cardiac arrhythmias, headaches, convulsions, hypertension, rapid heart rate, coma and death. Amphetamines are psychologically and physically addictive.
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01364
HMDB IDHMDB15451
PubChem Compound ID9294
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL211456
ChemSpider ID8935
KEGG IDC01575
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID15407
BioCyc ID--EPHEDRINE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDEphedrine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkEphedrine
References
Synthesis Reference

Thomas Moest, Uwe Loeffler, Hans Waiblinger, “Production of pellets composed of an ephedrine derivative.” U.S. Patent US5453280, issued March, 1994.

MSDST3D3040.pdf
General References
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  2. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles. Requisite for vesicular amine storage prior to secretion via exocytosis.
Gene Name:
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID:
Q05940
Molecular Weight:
55712.075 Da
References
  1. Horton DB, Siripurapu KB, Norrholm SD, Culver JP, Hojahmat M, Beckmann JS, Harrod SB, Deaciuc AG, Bardo MT, Crooks PA, Dwoskin LP: meso-Transdiene analogs inhibit vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function and methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Mar;336(3):940-51. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.175117. Epub 2010 Dec 21. [21177475 ]
  2. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [15955613 ]
  3. Sulzer D, Chen TK, Lau YY, Kristensen H, Rayport S, Ewing A: Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport. J Neurosci. 1995 May;15(5 Pt 2):4102-8. [7751968 ]
  4. Yasumoto S, Tamura K, Karasawa J, Hasegawa R, Ikeda K, Yamamoto T, Yamamoto H: Inhibitory effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Neurosci Lett. 2009 May 1;454(3):229-32. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.03.049. Epub 2009 Mar 18. [19429089 ]
  5. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [17209801 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi S, Endou M, Sakuraya F, Matsuda N, Zhang XH, Azuma M, Echigo N, Kemmotsu O, Hattori Y, Gando S: The sympathomimetic actions of l-ephedrine and d-pseudoephedrine: direct receptor activation or norepinephrine release? Anesth Analg. 2003 Nov;97(5):1239-45. [14570629 ]
  2. McMahon LR, Cunningham KA: Discriminative stimulus effects of (-)-ephedrine in rats: analysis with catecholamine transporter and receptor ligands. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003 Jun 5;70(3):255-64. [12757963 ]
  3. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [17209801 ]
  4. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [15955613 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Ma G, Bavadekar SA, Davis YM, Lalchandani SG, Nagmani R, Schaneberg BT, Khan IA, Feller DR: Pharmacological effects of ephedrine alkaloids on human alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor subtypes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jul;322(1):214-21. Epub 2007 Apr 3. [17405867 ]
  2. Wellman PJ, Miller DK, Ho DH: Noradrenergic modulation of ephedrine-induced hypophagia. Synapse. 2003 Apr;48(1):18-24. [12557268 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]