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Record Information
Creation Date2009-07-30 17:58:13 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:02 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3428
Common NamePentane
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPentane is found in alcoholic beverages. Pentane is present in hop oil.Pentane is any or one of the organic compounds with the formula C5H12. This alkane is a component of some fuels and is employed as a specialty solvent in the laboratory. Its properties are very similar to those of butane and hexane. It exists in three structural isomers, the branched isomers are called isopentane and neopentane. Pentane is one of the primary blowing agents used in the production of polystyrene foam. Pentane has been shown to exhibit radical scavenger function (2). Pentane belongs to the family of Acyclic Alkanes. These are acyclic hydrocarbons consisting only of n carbon atoms and m hydrogen atoms where m=2*n + 2.
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Gasoline Additive/Component
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
  • Solvent
Chemical Structure
Chemical FormulaC5H12
Average Molecular Mass72.149 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass72.094 g/mol
CAS Registry Number109-66-0
IUPAC Namepentane
Traditional Namepentane
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H12/c1-3-5-4-2/h3-5H2,1-2H3
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkanes. These are acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2 , and therefore consisting entirely of hydrogen atoms and saturated carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassHydrocarbons
ClassSaturated hydrocarbons
Sub ClassAlkanes
Direct ParentAlkanes
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Acyclic alkane
  • Alkane
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point-129°C
Boiling Point36.1°C (97°F)
Solubility0.038 mg/mL at 25°C
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.21 g/LALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.27 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-0165dd3056ca8d4d0cb52017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-9f4d0bc46cbebba407202017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-05fr-9000000000-cb388ccd32b4dda52ab62017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-0165dd3056ca8d4d0cb52018-05-18View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-9f4d0bc46cbebba407202018-05-18View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-05fr-9000000000-cb388ccd32b4dda52ab62018-05-18View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0096-9000000000-6e6ed27bdbe4c5c6a23d2016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-b501e0856cab89e4e3ab2016-08-02View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-d9b92b37a042ac5c54792016-08-02View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0596-9000000000-ce740c984d3d4904ba6d2016-08-02View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-b2b45009e87bcf6fc9b02016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-3029bc7f4a7e9ac563e02016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-dad710f25814b449a52c2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6e73363b636fec5933cb2021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01b9-9000000000-88ae36fb47fad76dda722021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-d35ade13f5e64e28a27e2021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-fbeae64eda05aa02d0352021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-257ce7ee5d4d98efdb172021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-2488085872f7165627472021-09-22View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-3d049919e62aaa7d7da82014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 90 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 15.09 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2014-09-23View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4) ; dermal (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityPentane is a central nervous system depressant. It affects the peripheral nervous system through demyelinization and axonal degeneration. (4)
MetabolismPentane is absorbed following inhalation and ingestion, and to a small extent from dermal exposure. Once in the body it distributes to the tissues and blood, with the highest concentration in the adipose tissue. Pentane is metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 system. The main metabolite is 2-pentanol, followed by 3-pentanol, and 2-pentanone. These intermediates are further metabolized to glucuronic acid conjugates or oxidized to ketone products, which are excreted in the urine and expired air. (1)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 446 mg/kg (Intravenous, Mouse) (3) LC50: 364 g/m3 over 4 hours (Inhalation, Rat) (3)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Pentane is found in gasoline, which is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). (8)
Uses/SourcesPentanes are components of some fuels, such as gasoline, and are also used as specialty solvents in the laboratory. (7)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPentane is a central nervous system depressant and can cause loss of consciousness and coma at high doses. Ingestion may cause pulmonary toxicity due to pentane aspiration, including chemical pneumonitis, acute lung injury, and hemorrhage. Cardiovascular effects may include ventricular dysrhythmias and sudden death. (4, 1)
SymptomsPentane is a central nervous system depressant and can cause anorexia, euphoria, dizziness, headache, depression, confusion, inability to concentrate, anoxia, narcosis, and loss of consciousness and coma at high concentrations. Contact with the skin results in cause drying, erythema, hyperpigmentation, hyperemia, dermatitis, burning pain, and blisters. (3, 4, 1)
TreatmentTreatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. Gastric lavage, emesis, and the administration of activated charcoal should be avoided, as vomiting increases the risk of aspiration. (1)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03119
PubChem Compound ID8003
ChemSpider ID7712
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID37830
BioCyc IDCPD-285
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDn-Pentane
ACToR ID3520
Wikipedia LinkPentane
Synthesis Reference

Franz J. Broecker, Karl G. Baur, Rolf Platz, Joachim Stabenow, “Preparation of 2-methyl-pentane-2,4-diol.” U.S. Patent US4298766, issued March, 1970.

General References
  1. Gunther S, McMillan PJ, Wallace LJ, Muller S: Plasmodium falciparum possesses organelle-specific alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes and lipoylation pathways. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Nov;33(Pt 5):977-80. [16246025 ]
  2. Sobotka PA, Brottman MD, Weitz Z, Birnbaum AJ, Skosey JL, Zarling EJ: Elevated breath pentane in heart failure reduced by free radical scavenger. Free Radic Biol Med. 1993 Jun;14(6):643-7. [8325536 ]
  3. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  4. Bingham, E, Cohrssen, B, and Powell, CH (2001). Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9. 5th ed. New York, N.Y: John Wiley & Sons.
  5. MICROMEDEX Thomson Health Care (2002). USPDI - Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. 22nd ed. Volume 1. Englewood, CO: MICROMEDEX Thomson Health Care. Content Reviewed and Approved by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc.
  6. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  7. Wikipedia. Pentane. Last Updated 12 July 2009. [Link]
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available