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Record Information
Creation Date2009-07-30 17:58:13 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:02 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3429
Common NameIsopentane
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionIsopentane is a hydrocarbon and one of three isomers of pentane. Pentanes are components of some fuels, such as gasoline, and are also used as specialty solvents in the laboratory. (7)
Compound Type
  • Gasoline Additive/Component
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Solvent
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Exxsol isopentane
Chemical FormulaC5H12
Average Molecular Mass72.149 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass72.094 g/mol
CAS Registry Number78-78-4
IUPAC Name2-methylbutane
Traditional Nameisopentane
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H12/c1-4-5(2)3/h5H,4H2,1-3H3
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as branched alkanes. These are acyclic branched hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
Sub ClassSaturated hydrocarbons
Direct ParentBranched alkanes
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Branched alkane
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point-159.9°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.048 mg/mL at 25°C [RIDDICK,JA et al. (1986)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.17 g/LALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity24.75 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.09 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-1c67612a7779d1b147bfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-3734a6b8433164e07a10View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-23b3d409728a479cd1a3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-b2b45009e87bcf6fc9b0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-214ca69c9838ff3d554bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-3eb09791cbfa7ad45cc7View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-2e63aaa69e5d9b8809d9View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4) ; dermal (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityPentane is a central nervous system depressant. It affects the peripheral nervous system through demyelinization and axonal degeneration. (4)
MetabolismPentane is absorbed following inhalation and ingestion, and to a small extent from dermal exposure. Once in the body it distributes to the tissues and blood, with the highest concentration in the adipose tissue. Pentane is metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 system. The main metabolite is 2-pentanol, followed by 3-pentanol, and 2-pentanone. These intermediates are further metabolized to glucuronic acid conjugates or oxidized to ketone products, which are excreted in the urine and expired air. (1)
Toxicity ValuesLC50: 450 mg/L over 2 hours (Inhalation, Mouse) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Isopentane is found in gasoline, which is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). (8)
Uses/SourcesPentanes are components of some fuels, such as gasoline, and are also used as specialty solvents in the laboratory. (7)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPentane is a central nervous system depressant and can cause loss of consciousness and coma at high doses. Ingestion may cause pulmonary toxicity due to pentane aspiration, including chemical pneumonitis, acute lung injury, and hemorrhage. Cardiovascular effects may include ventricular dysrhythmias and sudden death. (4, 1)
SymptomsPentane is a central nervous system depressant and can cause anorexia, euphoria, dizziness, headache, depression, confusion, inability to concentrate, anoxia, narcosis, and loss of consciousness and coma at high concentrations. Contact with the skin results in cause drying, erythema, hyperpigmentation, hyperemia, dermatitis, burning pain, and blisters. (3, 4, 1)
TreatmentTreatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. Gastric lavage, emesis, and the administration of activated charcoal should be avoided, as vomiting increases the risk of aspiration. (1)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6556
ChemSpider ID6308
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30362
BioCyc IDCPD-622
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDIsopentane
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID3312
Wikipedia LinkIsopentane
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Gunther S, McMillan PJ, Wallace LJ, Muller S: Plasmodium falciparum possesses organelle-specific alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes and lipoylation pathways. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Nov;33(Pt 5):977-80. [16246025 ]
  2. Coyle JT: Substance use disorders and Schizophrenia: a question of shared glutamatergic mechanisms. Neurotox Res. 2006 Dec;10(3-4):221-33. [17197372 ]
  3. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  4. Bingham, E, Cohrssen, B, and Powell, CH (2001). Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9. 5th ed. New York, N.Y: John Wiley & Sons.
  5. MICROMEDEX Thomson Health Care (2002). USPDI - Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. 22nd ed. Volume 1. Englewood, CO: MICROMEDEX Thomson Health Care. Content Reviewed and Approved by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc.
  6. European Chemicals Bureau (2000). IUCLID Dataset, 2-Methylbutane (78-78-4) (2000 CD-ROM edition).
  7. Wikipedia. Pentane. Last Updated 12 July 2009. [Link]
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available