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Record Information
Creation Date2010-05-27 19:14:43 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:32 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3776
Common NameSporidesmin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSporidesmin is a mycotoxin found in the spores of the fungus Pithomyces chartarum. It is a potent hepatotoxin and is known to cause pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema, characterized by photosensitisation) in livestock. (2)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Ether
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
Chemical Structure
Hydroxysporidesmin B
Sporidesmin A
Chemical FormulaC18H20ClN3O6S2
Average Molecular Mass473.951 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass473.048 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1456-55-9
IUPAC Name6-chloro-2,3-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-10,14,18-trimethyl-15,16-dithia-10,12,18-triazapentacyclo[¹,¹².0³,¹¹.0⁴,⁹]octadeca-4,6,8-triene-13,17-dione
Traditional Name6-chloro-2,3-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-10,14,18-trimethyl-15,16-dithia-10,12,18-triazapentacyclo[¹,¹².0³,¹¹.0⁴,⁹]octadeca-4,6,8-triene-13,17-dione
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C18H20ClN3O6S2/c1-16-14(24)22-13-17(26,12(23)18(22,30-29-16)15(25)21(16)3)7-6-8(19)10(27-4)11(28-5)9(7)20(13)2/h6,12-13,23,26H,1-5H3
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrroloindoles. These are compounds containing a pyrroloindole moiety, which is a tricyclic heterocycle which consists of a pyrrole ring fused to an indole. Pyrrole is 5-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. Indole is a bicyclic compound consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassPyrroloindoles
Direct ParentPyrroloindoles
Alternative Parents
  • Pyrroloindole
  • Epipolythiodioxopiperazine
  • Thiodioxopiperazine
  • Indole
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • 2,5-dioxopiperazine
  • Dioxopiperazine
  • Anisole
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • N-methylpiperazine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Piperazine
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Pyrrole
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Organic disulfide
  • Lactam
  • Carboxamide group
  • 1,2-diol
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility4.16 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area102.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity112.73 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability45 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (6)
Mechanism of ToxicitySporidesmin and its reduced (dithiol) form undergo cyclic reduction/autoxidation reactions with glutathione and other thiols, generating toxic superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxy radicals. It targets the liver, causing pericholangitis and the occlusion of bile ducts, which leads to the accumulation of bile constitutents in the bloodstream. In livestock, this results in a build up of phylloerythrin, a photodyamic metabolite produced by the microbial degradation of chlorophyll in the rumen. High plasma levels of phylloerythrin cause the animals to become sensitive to sunlight. (4, 5)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not listed by IARC.
Uses/SourcesSporidesmin is a mycotoxin found in the spores of the fungus Pithomyces chartarum. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsSporidesmin is a potent hepatotoxin, causing liver damage from pericholangitis and the occlusion of bile ducts, which results in the accumulation of bile constitutents in the bloodstream. This is known to lead to pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema, characterized by photosensitisation) in livestock. Sporidesmin may also be carcinogenic in humans. (2, 3)
SymptomsSporidesmin causes diarrhea and lack of appetite. Pithomycotoxicosis is characterized by photosensitisation of the skin. (2)
TreatmentAdministration of zinc salts can protect against the effects of sporidesmin. Zinc forms a stable mercaptide with sporidesmin, preventing its autoxidation to toxic reactive oxygen species. (2)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID99596
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Smith BL, Towers NR: Mycotoxicoses of grazing animals in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2002;50(3 Suppl):28-34. [16032233 ]
  2. Pinto C, Santos VM, Dinis J, Peleteiro MC, Fitzgerald JM, Hawkes AD, Smith BL: Pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema) in ruminants in the Azores, Portugal. Vet Rec. 2005 Dec 17;157(25):805-10. [16361474 ]
  3. Ferguson LR: Natural and human-made mutagens and carcinogens in the human diet. Toxicology. 2002 Dec 27;181-182:79-82. [12505288 ]
  4. Munday R: Studies on the mechanism of toxicity of the mycotoxin, sporidesmin. I. Generation of superoxide radical by sporidesmin. Chem Biol Interact. 1982 Sep;41(3):361-74. [6286158 ]
  5. Munday R: Studies on the mechanism of toxicity of the mycotoxin, sporidesmin. V. Generation of hydroxyl radical by sporidesmin. J Appl Toxicol. 1987 Feb;7(1):17-22. [3611593 ]
  6. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available