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Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 04:49:19 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:35 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4021
Common NameDigitoxin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDigitoxin is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of digoxin. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)Digitoxin inhibits the Na-K-ATPase membrane pump, resulting in an increase in intracellular sodium and calcium concentrations. Increased intracellular concentrations of calcium may promote activation of contractile proteins (e.g., actin, myosin). Digitoxin also acts on the electrical activity of the heart, increasing the slope of phase 4 depolarization, shortening the action potential duration, and decreasing the maximal diastolic potential.
Compound Type
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agent
  • Cardiotonic Agent
  • Drug
  • Enzyme Inhibitor
  • Ester
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Chemical FormulaC41H64O13
Average Molecular Mass764.939 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass764.435 g/mol
CAS Registry Number71-63-6
IUPAC Name4-[(1S,2S,5S,7R,10R,11S,14R,15R)-5-{[(2R,4S,5S,6R)-5-{[(2S,4S,5S,6R)-5-{[(2S,4S,5S,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-4-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-4-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-11-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-yl]-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
Traditional Name4-[(1S,2S,5S,7R,10R,11S,14R,15R)-5-{[(2R,4S,5S,6R)-5-{[(2S,4S,5S,6R)-5-{[(2S,4S,5S,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-4-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-4-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-11-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-yl]-5H-furan-2-one
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C41H64O13/c1-20-36(46)29(42)16-34(49-20)53-38-22(3)51-35(18-31(38)44)54-37-21(2)50-33(17-30(37)43)52-25-8-11-39(4)24(15-25)6-7-28-27(39)9-12-40(5)26(10-13-41(28,40)47)23-14-32(45)48-19-23/h14,20-22,24-31,33-38,42-44,46-47H,6-13,15-19H2,1-5H3/t20-,21-,22-,24-,25+,26-,27+,28-,29+,30+,31+,33+,34+,35+,36-,37-,38-,39+,40-,41+/m1/s1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cardenolide glycosides and derivatives. Cardenolide glycosides and derivatives are compounds containing a carbohydrate glycosidically bound to the cardenolide moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassSteroid lactones
Direct ParentCardenolide glycosides and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Cardanolide-glycoside
  • Steroidal glycoside
  • Oligosaccharide
  • 14-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • 2-furanone
  • Oxane
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Dihydrofuran
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Acetal
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point255.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility3.9 mg/L (at 25°C)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.029 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.18ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.24ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area182.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity191.72 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability83.54 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings8ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a6s-0006224900-f4742cfd25e169006a71JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a70-0319222100-bea3c6b184e571520ea6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-057i-1529132100-9064e603378164f3a6ffJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03xs-0114111900-18fd68a867e967c9eb96JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-006t-1309122200-4bd32c7f47afcb5b41e8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0f7k-4109220000-0aa801db64fdf3061347JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-052g-9620000000-5ddc0df4702d2f0b8581JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityDigitoxin inhibits the Na-K-ATPase membrane pump, resulting in an increase in intracellular sodium and calcium concentrations. Increased intracellular concentrations of calcium may promote activation of contractile proteins (e.g., actin, myosin). Digitoxin also acts on the electrical activity of the heart, increasing the slope of phase 4 depolarization, shortening the action potential duration, and decreasing the maximal diastolic potential.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment and management of congestive cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmias and heart failure.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01396
PubChem Compound ID441207
ChemSpider ID389987
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28544
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDigitoxin
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Belz GG, Breithaupt-Grogler K, Osowski U: Treatment of congestive heart failure--current status of use of digitoxin. Eur J Clin Invest. 2001;31 Suppl 2:10-7. [11525233 ]
  2. Kurowski V, Iven H, Djonlagic H: Treatment of a patient with severe digitoxin intoxication by Fab fragments of anti-digitalis antibodies. Intensive Care Med. 1992;18(7):439-42. [1469187 ]
  3. Johansson S, Lindholm P, Gullbo J, Larsson R, Bohlin L, Claeson P: Cytotoxicity of digitoxin and related cardiac glycosides in human tumor cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2001 Jun;12(5):475-83. [11395576 ]
  4. Hippius M, Humaid B, Sicker T, Hoffmann A, Gottler M, Hasford J: Adverse drug reaction monitoring--digitoxin overdosage in the elderly. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Aug;39(8):336-43. [11515708 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
  1. Chen JJ, Wang PS, Chien EJ, Wang SW: Direct inhibitory effect of digitalis on progesterone release from rat granulosa cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;132(8):1761-8. [11309248 ]
  2. Marcus FI, Ryan JN, Stafford MG: The reactivity of derivatives of digoxin and digitoxin as measured by the Na-K-atpase displacement assay and by radioimmunoassay. J Lab Clin Med. 1975 Apr;85(4):610-20. [123547 ]
  3. Prignitz R, Frohlich D, Hoffmeister G: [Influence of roentgen rays on electrolyte changes and metabolism of the myocardium. VII. Radiation-induced inhibition of the sodium- and potassium--activated microscomal-trasport ATPase]. Strahlentherapie. 1976 Apr;151(4):356-65. [131389 ]
  4. Bluschke V, Bonn R, Greeff K: Increase in the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity in heart muscle after chronic treatment with digitoxin or potassium deficient diet. Eur J Pharmacol. 1976 May;37(1):189-91. [132355 ]
  5. Fricke U: [New aspects on the mode of action of cardiac glycosides]. Fortschr Med. 1976 Nov 11;94(32):1037-45. [136410 ]
  6. Hauck C, Potter T, Bartz M, Wittwer T, Wahlers T, Mehlhorn U, Scheiner-Bobis G, McDonough AA, Bloch W, Schwinger RH, Muller-Ehmsen J: Isoform specificity of cardiac glycosides binding to human Na+,K+-ATPase alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1 and alpha3beta1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Nov 10;622(1-3):7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.08.039. Epub 2009 Sep 12. [19751721 ]
General Function:
Tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function:
Signal transducer and transcription activator that mediates cellular responses to interferons (IFNs), cytokine KITLG/SCF and other cytokines and other growth factors. Following type I IFN (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) binding to cell surface receptors, signaling via protein kinases leads to activation of Jak kinases (TYK2 and JAK1) and to tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. The phosphorylated STATs dimerize and associate with ISGF3G/IRF-9 to form a complex termed ISGF3 transcription factor, that enters the nucleus. ISGF3 binds to the IFN stimulated response element (ISRE) to activate the transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG), which drive the cell in an antiviral state. In response to type II IFN (IFN-gamma), STAT1 is tyrosine- and serine-phosphorylated. It then forms a homodimer termed IFN-gamma-activated factor (GAF), migrates into the nucleus and binds to the IFN gamma activated sequence (GAS) to drive the expression of the target genes, inducing a cellular antiviral state. Becomes activated in response to KITLG/SCF and KIT signaling. May mediate cellular responses to activated FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
87334.175 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>55.7 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 46356
  1. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]