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Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:15:25 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:45 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4286
Common NameHexacosanoic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionHexacosanoic acid, or cerotic acid, is a 26-carbon long-chain saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)24COOH. It is most commonly found in beeswax and carnauba wax, and is a white crystalline solid. (Wikipedia) X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder biochemically characterized by the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), particularly hexacosanoic acid (C(26:0)) and tetracosanoic acid (C(24:0)), in tissues and biological fluids. (1)
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Ceratinic acid
Ceric acid
Cerinic acid
Cerotic acid
Cerylic acid
Hexacosanoate (N-C26:0)
N-Hexacosanoic acid
Chemical FormulaC26H52O2
Average Molecular Mass396.690 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass396.397 g/mol
CAS Registry Number506-46-7
IUPAC Namehexacosanoic acid
Traditional Namehexacosanoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C26H52O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25-26(27)28/h2-25H2,1H3,(H,27,28)
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as very long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains at least 22 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentVery long-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
  • Very long-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Fibroblasts
Beta Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty AcidsSMP00052 map01040
Adrenoleukodystrophy, X-linkedSMP00516 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite crystalline solid.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point88.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.8e-05 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count24ChemAxon
Refractivity123.09 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability55.83 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0159-2900100000-dc0324482e5853e76290JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-2900100000-dc0324482e5853e76290JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-2900100000-dc0324482e5853e76290JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-1900000000-9d83fa08f63878dd9794JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-8890000000-a358b076f9e4d3b08976JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fmr-9550000000-f90d4cc6a83ff8e16245JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4j-0109000000-bc2c74027165503fd92fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0pb9-2193000000-cf0ac4a96f99022c7b3aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0w30-6096000000-65025824de97c5fb5ff7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 27V, negativesplash10-00lr-0009000000-998e2947790abd467bc7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-002b-0009000000-bd3c909a0431684b20e7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0ug1-3439000000-ca5336c838aa14069626JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000f-6974000000-93ebd8f603ed3f48dd9dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0009000000-50e9c7751bdac41b78c8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0f6t-0009000000-fdc9aa019c323235312eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9113000000-af814ec2317a697df1a0JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0597-9201000000-41113a5b904c5db7332dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureIngestion
Mechanism of ToxicityAdrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is caused by mutations in ABCD1, a gene located on the X chromosome that codes for ALD, a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein. The exact mechanism of the pathogenesis of the various forms of ALD is not known. Biochemically, individuals with ALD show very high levels of unbranched, saturated, very long chain fatty acids, particularly cerotic acid (26:0). The level of cerotic acid in plasma does not correlate with clinical presentation. (Wikipedia)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesHexacosanoic acid is most commonly found in beeswax and carnauba wax (Wikipedia). It is also an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsHexacosanoic acid, or cerotic acid, is associated with adrenoleukodystrophy (also known as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, ALD, X-ALD, adrenomyeloneuropathy, AMN, Siemerling–Creutzfeldt disease or bronze Schilder disease) is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta oxidation which results in the accumulation of very-long chain fatty acids in tissues throughout the body. The most severely affected tissues are the myelin in the central nervous system, the adrenal cortex and the Leydig cells in the testes. (Wikipedia)
SymptomsClinically, adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a heterogenous disorder, presenting with several distinct phenotypes, and no clear pattern of genotype-phenotype correlation. As an X-linked disorder, ALD presents most commonly in males, however approximately 50% of heterozygote females show some symptoms later in life. Approximately two-thirds of ALD patients will present with the childhood cerebral form of the disease, which is the most severe form. It is characterized by normal development in early childhood, followed by rapid degeneration to a vegetative state. The other forms of ALD vary in terms of onset and clinical severity, ranging from adrenal insufficiency to progressive paraparesis in early adulthood (this form of the disease is typically known as adrenomyeloneuropathy). (Wikipedia)
TreatmentTreatment options for adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) are limited. Dietary treatment is with Lorenzo's oil. For the childhood cerebral form, stem cell transplant and gene therapy are options if the disease is detected early in the clinical course. Adrenal insufficiency in ALD patients can be successfully treated. (Wikipedia)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID10469
ChemSpider ID10037
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID31009
BioCyc ID2-PG
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCerate
Synthesis ReferenceTsuji S; Sano T; Ariga T; Miyatake T Increased synthesis of hexacosanoic acid (C23:0) by cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN). Journal of biochemistry (1981), 90(4), 1233-6.
General References
  1. Deon M, Wajner M, Sirtori LR, Fitarelli D, Coelho DM, Sitta A, Barschak AG, Ferreira GC, Haeser A, Giugliani R, Vargas CR: The effect of Lorenzo's oil on oxidative stress in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. J Neurol Sci. 2006 Sep 25;247(2):157-64. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16750542 ]
  2. Moser HW, Moser AB, Powers JM, Nitowsky HM, Schaumburg HH, Norum RA, Migeon BR: The prenatal diagnosis of adrenoleukodystrophy. Demonstration of increased hexacosanoic acid levels in cultured amniocytes and fetal adrenal gland. Pediatr Res. 1982 Mar;16(3):172-5. [7063272 ]
  3. Dhaunsi GS, Kaur J, Alsaeid K, Turner RB, Bitar MS: Very long chain fatty acids activate NADPH oxidase in human dermal fibroblasts. Cell Biochem Funct. 2005 Jan-Feb;23(1):65-8. [15565636 ]
  4. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [23455439 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available