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Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:28:02 UTC
Update Date2018-03-21 17:46:17 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4330
Common NameGlyceric acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionGlyceric acid is a colourless syrupy acid, obtained from oxidation of glycerol. It is a compound that is secreted excessively in the urine by patients suffering from D-glyceric aciduria, an inborn error of metabolism, and D-glycerate anemia. Deficiency of human glycerate kinase leads to D-glycerate acidemia/D-glyceric aciduria. Symptoms of the disease include progressive neurological impairment, hypotonia, seizures, failure to thrive, and metabolic acidosis. At sufficiently high levels, glyceric acid can act as an acidogen and a metabotoxin. An acidogen is an acidic compound that induces acidosis, which has multiple adverse effects on many organ systems. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Glyceric acid is an organic acid. Abnormally high levels of organic acids in the blood (organic acidemia), urine (organic aciduria), the brain, and other tissues lead to general metabolic acidosis. Acidosis typically occurs when arterial pH falls below 7.35. In infants with acidosis, the initial symptoms include poor feeding, vomiting, loss of appetite, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and lack of energy (lethargy). These can progress to heart abnormalities, seizures, coma, and possibly death. These are also the characteristic symptoms of untreated glyceric aciduria. Many affected children with organic acidemias experience intellectual disability or delayed development. In adults, acidosis or acidemia is characterized by headaches, confusion, feeling tired, tremors, sleepiness, and seizures.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
a,b-Hydroxypropionic acid
D-Glyceric acid
Chemical FormulaC3H6O4
Average Molecular Mass106.077 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass106.027 g/mol
CAS Registry Number473-81-4
IUPAC Name(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropanoic acid
Traditional Nameglycerate
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H6O4/c4-1-2(5)3(6)7/h2,4-5H,1H2,(H,6,7)/t2-/m1/s1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. Sugar acids and derivatives are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Glyceric_acid
  • Sugar acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • 1,2-diol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Prostate
Glycerolipid MetabolismSMP00039 map00561
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004 map00260
D-glyceric aciduraSMP00529 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1000.0 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility639 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.42ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.38 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.96 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f6t-0910000000-52b917dbc684454452aeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0uei-0920000000-4d5f18f14464b7289e4eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f72-0920000000-7727c90167e5f1e15f7cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f6t-0910000000-52b917dbc684454452aeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uei-0920000000-4d5f18f14464b7289e4eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01po-9000000000-e74d8dcadd449f32f28fJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0avr-9362000000-4ae43a853db514e46cc7JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0ufr-9800000000-f68cee7fd839cc0c350aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0pb9-9300000000-c9741b095b361aa0bf2eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0udi-8900000000-2ca9bd370ef2f7afdf64JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-2c68fcd2a4c9cc998e14JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9400000000-a3e0c92f667ab9fdfbe5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e2f8962c5a4a4bde459aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-052e-9000000000-08ad44e661510838b17fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0007-9000000000-b65c29cedef64ad74dfbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-2d91902f3a95d7e66bbaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-2c68fcd2a4c9cc998e14JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9400000000-a3e0c92f667ab9fdfbe5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e2f8962c5a4a4bde459aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-052e-9000000000-08ad44e661510838b17fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0007-9000000000-b65c29cedef64ad74dfbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-2d91902f3a95d7e66bbaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9600000000-6c887f0d5bb5b5b43e47JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01p9-9100000000-4dcb939c91e313be7889JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-0ddbae5fe95cd5c2cc3aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-7900000000-483a2fcbaa1f9e4282f8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-c37acde4cab84c418b98JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-c2110468981b90e60c2bJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityGlyceric acid is a compound that is secreted excessively in the urine by patients suffering from D-glyceric aciduria and D-glycerate anemia. Deficiency of human glycerate kinase leads to D-glycerate acidemia/D-glyceric aciduria. Accumulation of glyceric acid in the body has been shown to be toxic.
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronically high levels of D-glyceric acid are associated with D-glyceric acidura.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID439194
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID388334
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID32398
BioCyc ID2-PG
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlyceric acid
Synthesis ReferenceKyriacou, Demetrios; Tougas, Terrence P. Preparation of glyceric acid by anodic oxidation of glycerol at a silver oxide electrode. Journal of Organic Chemistry (1987), 52(11), 2318-19.
General References
  1. Topcu M, Saatci I, Haliloglu G, Kesimer M, Coskun T: D-glyceric aciduria in a six-month-old boy presenting with West syndrome and autistic behaviour. Neuropediatrics. 2002 Feb;33(1):47-50. [11930278 ]
  2. Boulat O, Gradwohl M, Matos V, Guignard JP, Bachmann C: Organic acids in the second morning urine in a healthy Swiss paediatric population. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Dec;41(12):1642-58. [14708889 ]
  3. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [8087979 ]
  4. Dietzen DJ, Wilhite TR, Kenagy DN, Milliner DS, Smith CH, Landt M: Extraction of glyceric and glycolic acids from urine with tetrahydrofuran: utility in detection of primary hyperoxaluria. Clin Chem. 1997 Aug;43(8 Pt 1):1315-20. [9267307 ]
  5. Fontaine M, Porchet N, Largilliere C, Marrakchi S, Lhermitte M, Aubert JP, Degand P: Biochemical contribution to diagnosis and study of a new case of D-glyceric acidemia/aciduria. Clin Chem. 1989 Oct;35(10):2148-51. [2551543 ]
  6. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [8412012 ]
  7. Bennett MJ, Ragni MC, Hood I, Hale DE: Comparison of post-mortem urinary and vitreous humour organic acids. Ann Clin Biochem. 1992 Sep;29 ( Pt 5):541-5. [1444166 ]
  8. Rashed MS, Aboul-Enein HY, AlAmoudi M, Jakob M, Al-Ahaideb LY, Abbad A, Shabib S, Al-Jishi E: Chiral liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the determination of the configuration of glyceric acid in urine of patients with D-glyceric and L-glyceric acidurias. Biomed Chromatogr. 2002 May;16(3):191-8. [11920944 ]
  9. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Phosphoglycerate kinase activity
Specific Function:
In addition to its role as a glycolytic enzyme, it seems that PGK-1 acts as a polymerase alpha cofactor protein (primer recognition protein).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
44614.36 Da