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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:33:58 UTC
Update Date2018-03-21 17:46:19 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4358
Identification
Common NameGlutaconic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionGlutaconic acid is related to the fully saturated glutaric acid and belongs to the class of compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups. Glutaconic acid is soluble (in water) and a weakly acidic compound (based on its pKa). Glutaconic acid has been detected in the urine of individuals with inborn errors of metabolism. When present in sufficiently high levels, glutaconic acid can act as an acidogen, a neurotoxin, and a metabotoxin. An acidogen is an acidic compound that induces acidosis, which has multiple adverse effects on many organ systems. A neurotoxin is a compound that is toxic to neural tissues and cells. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of glutaconic acid are associated with glutaric aciduria type I (glutaric acidemia type I, glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, GA1, or GAT1). GA1 is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to completely break down the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan. Excessive levels of their intermediate breakdown products (e.g. glutaric acid, glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid) can accumulate and cause damage to the brain (and also other organs). Babies with glutaric acidemia type I are often born with unusually large heads (macrocephaly). Macrocephaly is amongst the earliest signs of GA1. GA1 also causes secondary carnitine deficiency because glutaconic acid, like other organic acids, is detoxified by carnitine. Abnormally high levels of organic acids in the blood (organic acidemia), urine (organic aciduria), the brain, and other tissues lead to general metabolic acidosis. Acidosis typically occurs when arterial pH falls below 7.35. In infants with acidosis, the initial symptoms include poor feeding, vomiting, loss of appetite, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and lack of energy (lethargy). These can progress to heart, liver, and kidney abnormalities, seizures, coma, and possibly death. These are also the characteristic symptoms of untreated glutaric aciduria. Many affected children with organic acidemias experience intellectual disability or delayed development. In adults, acidosis or acidemia is characterized by headaches, confusion, feeling tired, tremors, sleepiness, and seizures. Glutaconic acid's neurotoxicity is thought to be partially caused by an excitotoxic mechanism in which glutaconic acid overactivates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Accumulating trans-glutaconic (TG) acids have been proposed to be involved in the development of the striatal degeneration seen in children with glutaric acidemia type I via an excitotoxic mechanism.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(E)-2-Pentenedioate
(E)-2-Pentenedioic acid
(E)-Glutaconate
(E)-Glutaconic acid
1,3-Propenedicarboxylate
1,3-Propenedicarboxylic acid
1-Propene-1,3-dicarboxylate
1-Propene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
Glutaconate
Pentenedioate
Pentenedioic acid
trans-Glutaconate
trans-Glutaconic acid
Chemical FormulaC5H6O4
Average Molecular Mass130.099 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass130.027 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1724-02-3
IUPAC Name(2E)-pent-2-enedioic acid
Traditional Nameglutaconic acid
SMILES[H]\C(CC(O)=O)=C(\[H])C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H6O4/c6-4(7)2-1-3-5(8)9/h1-2H,3H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/b2-1+
InChI KeyInChIKey=XVOUMQNXTGKGMA-OWOJBTEDSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Glutaric Aciduria Type ISMP00185 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point133 - 135°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility17.6 g/LALOGPS
logP0.05ALOGPS
logP0.044ChemAxon
logS-0.87ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.69ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity29.23 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.36 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3930000000-d1b6e04bed9f3de84afaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3910000000-02c8fdec1f78bd5117e2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3930000000-d1b6e04bed9f3de84afaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3910000000-02c8fdec1f78bd5117e2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3930000000-d1b6e04bed9f3de84afaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3910000000-02c8fdec1f78bd5117e2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3930000000-d1b6e04bed9f3de84afaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3910000000-02c8fdec1f78bd5117e2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001r-9100000000-42f59aea4f8e6bb8ab57JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05g0-8920000000-733f5a9f839df29bff69JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-6fb6cc9ab31410b273f1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000f-9000000000-b9c27f4002ce9f12f916JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000f-9100000000-d627e3ddfe858b1b331dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03e9-3900000000-f982ee0bd6ebcaf33bbeJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01q0-9500000000-90dd8c522781e5da5ebbJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00n0-9000000000-e56400244a361d348a1fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-ad86855e24f296413178JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-4900000000-30e4a1adead132f7de92JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9000000000-47a3aa8cf8913cc4d70eJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityAccumulating trans-glutaconic (TG) acids has been proposed to be involved in the development of the striatal degeneration seen in children with glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA1) via an excitotoxic mechanism. TG is neurotoxic and neurotoxicity is thought to be caused by an excitotoxic mechanism in which TG overactivates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. (3) In glutaric aciduria type 1, glutaconic acid accumulates, resulting in brain damage. (Wikipedia)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronically high levels of glutaconic acid are associated with Glutaric Aciduria Type I.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00620
PubChem Compound ID5280498
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL557347
ChemSpider ID4444138
KEGG IDC02214
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID15670
BioCyc IDGLUTACONATE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlutaconic acid
References
Synthesis ReferenceSchwarz, Siegfried; Bohn, Helmut; Schmidt, Dieter; Kulpa, Manfred; Spakowski, Horst; Becker, Manfred. Glutaconic acid. Ger. (East) (1967), 2 pp.
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Podebrad F, Heil M, Beck T, Mosandl A, Sewell AC, Bohles H: Stereodifferentiation of 3-hydroxyisobutyric- and 3-aminoisobutyric acid in human urine by enantioselective multidimensional capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 2000 Feb 25;292(1-2):93-105. [10686279 ]
  2. Osaka H, Kimura S, Nezu A, Yamazaki S, Saitoh K, Yamaguchi S: Chronic subdural hematoma, as an initial manifestation of glutaric aciduria type-1. Brain Dev. 1993 Mar-Apr;15(2):125-7. [8214331 ]
  3. Lund TM, Christensen E, Kristensen AS, Schousboe A, Lund AM: On the neurotoxicity of glutaric, 3-hydroxyglutaric, and trans-glutaconic acids in glutaric acidemia type 1. J Neurosci Res. 2004 Jul 1;77(1):143-7. [15197747 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. NMDA receptor (Protein Group)
General Function:
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors (By similarity).
Included Proteins:
Q05586 , Q12879 , Q13224 , Q14957 , O15399 , Q8TCU5 , O60391