Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-30 21:04:54 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4563
Identification
Common NameDexmethylphenidate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDexmethylphenidate is the dextrorotary form of methylphenidate. It is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) and thus a psychostimulant. It is used for treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Attenade
d-threo-methylphenidate
D-TMP
Dexmethylphenidic acid
Focalin
FocalinXR
Chemical FormulaC14H19NO2
Average Molecular Mass233.306 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass233.142 g/mol
CAS Registry Number40431-64-9
IUPAC Namemethyl (2R)-2-phenyl-2-[(2R)-piperidin-2-yl]acetate
Traditional Namedexmethylphenidate
SMILES[H][C@@](C(=O)OC)(C1=CC=CC=C1)[C@@]1([H])CCCCN1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C14H19NO2/c1-17-14(16)13(11-7-3-2-4-8-11)12-9-5-6-10-15-12/h2-4,7-8,12-13,15H,5-6,9-10H2,1H3/t12-,13-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=DUGOZIWVEXMGBE-CHWSQXEVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aralkylamines. These are alkylamines in which the alkyl group is substituted at one carbon atom by an aromatic hydrocarbyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassAmines
Direct ParentAralkylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Piperidine
  • Benzenoid
  • Methyl ester
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Secondary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.18 g/LALOGPS
logP1.47ALOGPS
logP2.25ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.33 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity66.73 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability26.23 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0089-9610000000-8e4c1241e36274356032View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-1190000000-8803b6fb1d54baf20a6fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-6390000000-63f6ddbd32540d6c0e4eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9500000000-dab6b5667313005cbcd2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-dbf1d73eb0c9410efbf6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-2290000000-4a7ee5089439605a9759View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00w9-9520000000-aa484f1df63a11905d5aView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure11-52%
Mechanism of ToxicityMethylphenidate blocks dopamine uptake in central adrenergic neurons by blocking dopamine transport or carrier proteins. Methylphenidate acts at the brain stem arousal system and the cerebral cortex and causes increased sympathomimetic activity in the central nervous system. Methylphenidate is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor that indirectly increases catecholaminergic neurotransmission by inhibiting the dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET), which are responsible for clearing catecholamines from the synapse, particularly in the striatum and meso-limbic system.
Metabolismepatic, methylphenidate is metabolized primarily by de-esterification to ritalinic acid (α-phenyl-2-piperidine acetic acid, PPAA), which has little to no pharmacologic activity. Route of Elimination: Renal Half Life: 2-4 hours
Toxicity ValuesOral, Mouse: LD50=190mg/kg
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesDexmethylphenidate is used as a treatment for ADHD, ideally in conjunction with psychological, educational, behavioral or other forms of treatment.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, convulsions (may be followed by coma), euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, sweating, flushing, headache, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB06701
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID4158
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDexmethylphenidate
References
Synthesis Reference

Arie Gutman, “Process for the preparation of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride.” U.S. Patent US20040180928, issued September 16, 2004.

MSDSNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.11 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50062912
IC500.017 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50062912
IC500.079 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50062912
References
  1. Markowitz JS, Patrick KS: Differential pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methylphenidate enantiomers: does chirality matter? J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jun;28(3 Suppl 2):S54-61. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181733560. [18480678 ]
  2. Ding YS, Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Dewey SL, Wang GJ, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Pappas N: Chiral drugs: comparison of the pharmacokinetics of [11C]d-threo and L-threo-methylphenidate in the human and baboon brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 May;131(1):71-8. [9181638 ]
  3. Davids E, Zhang K, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ: Stereoselective effects of methylphenidate on motor hyperactivity in juvenile rats induced by neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 Feb;160(1):92-8. Epub 2001 Dec 18. [11862378 ]
  4. Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Gatley SJ, Dewey SL, Wang GJ, Logan J, Ding YS, Franceschi D, Gifford A, Morgan A, Pappas N, King P: Comparable changes in synaptic dopamine induced by methylphenidate and by cocaine in the baboon brain. Synapse. 1999 Jan;31(1):59-66. [10025684 ]
  5. Wayment HK, Deutsch H, Schweri MM, Schenk JO: Effects of methylphenidate analogues on phenethylamine substrates for the striatal dopamine transporter: potential as amphetamine antagonists? J Neurochem. 1999 Mar;72(3):1266-74. [10037500 ]
  6. Dresel SH, Kung MP, Huang X, Plossl K, Hou C, Shiue CY, Karp J, Kung HF: In vivo imaging of serotonin transporters with [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in nonhuman primates. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999 Apr;26(4):342-7. [10199939 ]
  7. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Fischman M, Foltin R, Abumrad NN, Gatley SJ, Logan J, Wong C, Gifford A, Ding YS, Hitzemann R, Pappas N: Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain. Life Sci. 1999;65(1):PL7-12. [10403500 ]
  8. Izenwasser S, Coy AE, Ladenheim B, Loeloff RJ, Cadet JL, French D: Chronic methylphenidate alters locomotor activity and dopamine transporters differently from cocaine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Jun 4;373(2-3):187-93. [10414438 ]
  9. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  10. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  11. Viggiano D, Vallone D, Sadile A: Dysfunctions in dopamine systems and ADHD: evidence from animals and modeling. Neural Plast. 2004;11(1-2):97-114. [15303308 ]
  12. Tilley MR, Gu HH: The effects of methylphenidate on knockin mice with a methylphenidate-resistant dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):554-60. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.141713. Epub 2008 Aug 12. [18698001 ]
  13. Meltzer PC, Wang P, Blundell P, Madras BK: Synthesis and evaluation of dopamine and serotonin transporter inhibition by oxacyclic and carbacyclic analogues of methylphenidate. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 10;46(8):1538-45. [12672255 ]
  14. Froimowitz M, Gu Y, Dakin LA, Nagafuji PM, Kelley CJ, Parrish D, Deschamps JR, Janowsky A: Slow-onset, long-duration, alkyl analogues of methylphenidate with enhanced selectivity for the dopamine transporter. J Med Chem. 2007 Jan 25;50(2):219-32. [17228864 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.66 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50062912
IC500.061 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50062912
References
  1. Markowitz JS, Patrick KS: Differential pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methylphenidate enantiomers: does chirality matter? J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jun;28(3 Suppl 2):S54-61. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181733560. [18480678 ]
  2. Ding YS, Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Dewey SL, Wang GJ, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Pappas N: Chiral drugs: comparison of the pharmacokinetics of [11C]d-threo and L-threo-methylphenidate in the human and baboon brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 May;131(1):71-8. [9181638 ]
  3. Davids E, Zhang K, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ: Stereoselective effects of methylphenidate on motor hyperactivity in juvenile rats induced by neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 Feb;160(1):92-8. Epub 2001 Dec 18. [11862378 ]
  4. Yang L, Wang YF, Li J, Faraone SV: Association of norepinephrine transporter gene with methylphenidate response. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;43(9):1154-8. [15322419 ]
  5. Williard RL, Middaugh LD, Zhu HJ, Patrick KS: Methylphenidate and its ethanol transesterification metabolite ethylphenidate: brain disposition, monoamine transporters and motor activity. Behav Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;18(1):39-51. [17218796 ]
  6. Chuhan YS, Taukulis HK: Impairment of single-trial memory formation by oral methylphenidate in the rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2006 Mar;85(2):125-31. Epub 2005 Oct 24. [16246598 ]
  7. Gray JD, Punsoni M, Tabori NE, Melton JT, Fanslow V, Ward MJ, Zupan B, Menzer D, Rice J, Drake CT, Romeo RD, Brake WG, Torres-Reveron A, Milner TA: Methylphenidate administration to juvenile rats alters brain areas involved in cognition, motivated behaviors, appetite, and stress. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 4;27(27):7196-207. [17611273 ]
  8. Sandoval V, Riddle EL, Ugarte YV, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Methamphetamine-induced rapid and reversible changes in dopamine transporter function: an in vitro model. J Neurosci. 2001 Feb 15;21(4):1413-9. [11160413 ]
  9. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  10. Tilley MR, Gu HH: The effects of methylphenidate on knockin mice with a methylphenidate-resistant dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):554-60. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.141713. Epub 2008 Aug 12. [18698001 ]
  11. Froimowitz M, Gu Y, Dakin LA, Nagafuji PM, Kelley CJ, Parrish D, Deschamps JR, Janowsky A: Slow-onset, long-duration, alkyl analogues of methylphenidate with enhanced selectivity for the dopamine transporter. J Med Chem. 2007 Jan 25;50(2):219-32. [17228864 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory65 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50062912
IC505.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50062912
References
  1. Dresel SH, Kung MP, Huang X, Plossl K, Hou C, Shiue CY, Karp J, Kung HF: In vivo imaging of serotonin transporters with [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in nonhuman primates. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999 Apr;26(4):342-7. [10199939 ]
  2. Izenwasser S, Coy AE, Ladenheim B, Loeloff RJ, Cadet JL, French D: Chronic methylphenidate alters locomotor activity and dopamine transporters differently from cocaine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Jun 4;373(2-3):187-93. [10414438 ]
  3. Stehouwer JS, Jarkas N, Zeng F, Voll RJ, Williams L, Owens MJ, Votaw JR, Goodman MM: Synthesis, radiosynthesis, and biological evaluation of carbon-11 labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(3'-((Z)-2-haloethenyl)phenyl)nortropanes: candidate radioligands for in vivo imaging of the serotonin transporter with positron emission tomography. J Med Chem. 2006 Nov 16;49(23):6760-7. [17154506 ]
  4. Froimowitz M, Gu Y, Dakin LA, Nagafuji PM, Kelley CJ, Parrish D, Deschamps JR, Janowsky A: Slow-onset, long-duration, alkyl analogues of methylphenidate with enhanced selectivity for the dopamine transporter. J Med Chem. 2007 Jan 25;50(2):219-32. [17228864 ]