Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:13:49 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4731
Identification
Common NamePotassium Chloride
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionA white crystal or crystalline powder used as an electrolyte replenisher, in the treatment of hypokalemia, in buffer solutions, and in fertilizers and explosives.
Compound Type
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Natural Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Chlorid draselny
Chloride of potash
K-Dur
K-Tab
Kaliumchlorid
Kaon Cl
Kaon-CL 10
KCl
Klor-CON
Klotrix
Micro-K
Monopotassium chloride
Muriate of potash
Potassium chloride
Sando-K
Slow-K
Sylvite
[KCl]
Chemical FormulaClK
Average Molecular Mass74.551 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass73.933 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7447-40-7
IUPAC Namepotassium chloride
Traditional Namepotassium chloride
SMILES[Cl-].[K+]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/ClH.K/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
InChI KeyInChIKey=WCUXLLCKKVVCTQ-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkali metal chlorides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest halogen atom is Chlorine, and the heaviest metal atom is an alkali metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassAlkali metal salts
Sub ClassAlkali metal chlorides
Direct ParentAlkali metal chlorides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkali metal chloride
  • Inorganic chloride salt
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point770°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityFreely soluble
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposurePotassium is a normal dietary constituent and under steady-state conditions the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine.
Mechanism of ToxicitySupplemental potassium in the form of high potassium food or potassium chloride may be able to restore normal potassium levels.
MetabolismRoute of Elimination: Potassium is a normal dietary constituent and, under steady-state conditions, the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. Potassium depletion will occur whenever the rate of potassium loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of potassium intake.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor use as an electrolyte replenisher and in the treatment of hypokalemia.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThe administration of oral potassium salts to persons with normal excretory mechanisms for potassium rarely causes serious hyperkalemia. However, if excretory mechanisms are impaired, of if potassium is administered too rapidly intravenously, potentially fatal hyperkalemia can result. It is important to recognize that hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic and may be manifested only by an increased serum potassium concentration (6.5-8.0 mEq/L) and characteristic electrocardiographic changes (peaking of T-waves, loss of P-wave, depression of S-T segment, and prolongation of the QT interval). Late manifestations include muscle paralysis and cardiovascular collapse from cardiac arrest (9-12 mEq/L).
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00761
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID4873
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1200731
ChemSpider ID4707
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID32588
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPotassium_Chloride
References
Synthesis Reference

Fritz Hagedorn, Gerd Peuschel, Arno Singewald, “Method for the production of potassium chloride with K.sub.2 O content of more than 55 weight percent.” U.S. Patent US5057208, issued July, 1955.

MSDST3D4731.pdf
General ReferencesNot Available
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function:
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name:
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID:
Q13621
Molecular Weight:
121449.13 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Fujiwara TM, Bichet DG: Molecular biology of hereditary diabetes insipidus. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Oct;16(10):2836-46. Epub 2005 Aug 10. [16093448 ]
  4. Bichet DG: Hereditary polyuric disorders: new concepts and differential diagnosis. Semin Nephrol. 2006 May;26(3):224-33. [16713495 ]
  5. Pressler CA, Heinzinger J, Jeck N, Waldegger P, Pechmann U, Reinalter S, Konrad M, Beetz R, Seyberth HW, Waldegger S: Late-onset manifestation of antenatal Bartter syndrome as a result of residual function of the mutated renal Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Aug;17(8):2136-42. Epub 2006 Jun 28. [16807401 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General Function:
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport in mature neurons. Transport occurs under isotonic conditions, but is activated 20-fold by cell swelling. Important for Cl(-) homeostasis in neurons.
Gene Name:
SLC12A5
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2X9
Molecular Weight:
126182.49 Da
References
  1. Takayama C, Inoue Y: Developmental localization of potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the Purkinje cells of embryonic mouse cerebellum. Neurosci Res. 2007 Feb;57(2):322-5. Epub 2006 Nov 28. [17134779 ]
  2. Tornberg J, Segerstrale M, Kulesskaya N, Voikar V, Taira T, Airaksinen MS: KCC2-deficient mice show reduced sensitivity to diazepam, but normal alcohol-induced motor impairment, gaboxadol-induced sedation, and neurosteroid-induced hypnosis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Apr;32(4):911-8. Epub 2006 Aug 16. [16936706 ]
  3. Misri S, Chimote AA, Adragna NC, Warwar R, Brown TL, Lauf PK: KCC isoforms in a human lens epithelial cell line (B3) and lens tissue extracts. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Nov;83(5):1287-94. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16949074 ]
  4. Takayama C, Inoue Y: Developmental localization of potassium chloride co-transporter 2 in granule cells of the early postnatal mouse cerebellum with special reference to the synapse formation. Neuroscience. 2006 Dec;143(3):757-67. Epub 2006 Sep 27. [17008020 ]
  5. Capo-Aponte JE, Wang Z, Bildin VN, Iserovich P, Pan Z, Zhang F, Pokorny KS, Reinach PS: Functional and molecular characterization of multiple K-Cl cotransporter isoforms in corneal epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Jun;84(6):1090-103. Epub 2007 Feb 16. [17418819 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function:
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name:
SLC12A2
Uniprot ID:
P55011
Molecular Weight:
131445.825 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Hebert SC: Bartter syndrome. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2003 Sep;12(5):527-32. [12920401 ]
General Function:
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport when activated by cell swelling. May contribute to cell volume homeostasis in single cells. May be involved in the regulation of basolateral Cl(-) exit in NaCl absorbing epithelia (By similarity). Isoform 4 has no transport activity.
Gene Name:
SLC12A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UP95
Molecular Weight:
120648.73 Da
References
  1. Misri S, Chimote AA, Adragna NC, Warwar R, Brown TL, Lauf PK: KCC isoforms in a human lens epithelial cell line (B3) and lens tissue extracts. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Nov;83(5):1287-94. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16949074 ]
  2. Capo-Aponte JE, Wang Z, Bildin VN, Iserovich P, Pan Z, Zhang F, Pokorny KS, Reinach PS: Functional and molecular characterization of multiple K-Cl cotransporter isoforms in corneal epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Jun;84(6):1090-103. Epub 2007 Feb 16. [17418819 ]
  3. Klein T, Cooper TG, Yeung CH: The role of potassium chloride cotransporters in murine and human sperm volume regulation. Biol Reprod. 2006 Dec;75(6):853-8. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [16943364 ]
General Function:
Rubidium ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport. May be activated by cell swelling. May contribute to cell volume homeostasis in single cells.
Gene Name:
SLC12A6
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHW9
Molecular Weight:
127615.745 Da
References
  1. Misri S, Chimote AA, Adragna NC, Warwar R, Brown TL, Lauf PK: KCC isoforms in a human lens epithelial cell line (B3) and lens tissue extracts. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Nov;83(5):1287-94. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16949074 ]
  2. Capo-Aponte JE, Wang Z, Bildin VN, Iserovich P, Pan Z, Zhang F, Pokorny KS, Reinach PS: Functional and molecular characterization of multiple K-Cl cotransporter isoforms in corneal epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Jun;84(6):1090-103. Epub 2007 Feb 16. [17418819 ]
  3. Klein T, Cooper TG, Yeung CH: The role of potassium chloride cotransporters in murine and human sperm volume regulation. Biol Reprod. 2006 Dec;75(6):853-8. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [16943364 ]
General Function:
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport when activated by cell swelling. May mediate K(+) uptake into Deiters' cells in the cochlea and contribute to K(+) recycling in the inner ear. Important for the survival of cochlear outer and inner hair cells and the maintenance of the organ of Corti. May be required for basolateral Cl(-) extrusion in the kidney and contribute to renal acidification (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC12A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y666
Molecular Weight:
119104.84 Da
References
  1. Misri S, Chimote AA, Adragna NC, Warwar R, Brown TL, Lauf PK: KCC isoforms in a human lens epithelial cell line (B3) and lens tissue extracts. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Nov;83(5):1287-94. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16949074 ]
  2. Capo-Aponte JE, Wang Z, Bildin VN, Iserovich P, Pan Z, Zhang F, Pokorny KS, Reinach PS: Functional and molecular characterization of multiple K-Cl cotransporter isoforms in corneal epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Jun;84(6):1090-103. Epub 2007 Feb 16. [17418819 ]
  3. Klein T, Cooper TG, Yeung CH: The role of potassium chloride cotransporters in murine and human sperm volume regulation. Biol Reprod. 2006 Dec;75(6):853-8. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [16943364 ]