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Record Information
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:14:08 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4738
Common NameEncainide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAll drug products containing encainide hydrochloride. Encainide hydrochloride, formerly marketed as Enkaid capsules, was associated with increased death rates in patients who had asymptomatic heart rhythm abnormalities after a recent heart attack. The manufacturer of Enkaid capsules voluntarily withdrew the product from the US market on December 16, 1991.
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agent
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Organic Compound
  • Sodium Channel Blocker
  • Synthetic Compound
  • Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blocker
Chemical Structure
Chemical FormulaC22H28N2O2
Average Molecular Mass352.470 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass352.215 g/mol
CAS Registry Number66778-36-7
IUPAC Name4-methoxy-N-{2-[2-(1-methylpiperidin-2-yl)ethyl]phenyl}benzamide
Traditional Nameencainide
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C22H28N2O2/c1-24-16-6-5-8-19(24)13-10-17-7-3-4-9-21(17)23-22(25)18-11-14-20(26-2)15-12-18/h3-4,7,9,11-12,14-15,19H,5-6,8,10,13,16H2,1-2H3,(H,23,25)
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzanilides. These are aromatic compounds containing an anilide group in which the carboxamide group is substituted with a benzene ring. They have the general structure RNC(=O)R', where R,R'= benzene.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassAnilides
Direct ParentBenzanilides
Alternative Parents
  • Benzanilide
  • Benzamide
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Anisole
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Benzoyl
  • Phenol ether
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Aralkylamine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Piperidine
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxamide group
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.004 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area41.57 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity107.77 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability41.04 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-052n-9311000000-985044a85c7ca1fc4601JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0019000000-c3aba8c66a81550a1bc5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-4489000000-fb4fa7dd76074a147422JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0pbc-9741000000-30c243030c2a40b68b44JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-ace9a97974ab75eb724bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1219000000-8488789ae9ebc4c00e17JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9511000000-c16ae5ec1e6ea9df3fb7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udr-0509000000-1dacce0088b2fb6df452JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-2922000000-d0a2447f1a18ba018bddJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0aov-9500000000-bcebe1c95f279236a417JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-af987e6024645b1a42dcJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-4449000000-97433c4f98db5b174197JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9231000000-7c8bacd1fef271451d2bJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityEncainide is a sodium channel blocker, binding to voltage gated sodium channels. It stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses. Ventricular excitability is depressed and the stimulation threshold of the ventricle is increased during diastole.
MetabolismRoute of Elimination: A radiolabeled dose of encainide is excreted in approximately equal amounts in the urine and feces. Half Life: 1-2 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesEncainide is a class Ic antiarrhythmic agent which was used for management of irregular heartbeats, such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01228
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4788
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkEncainide
Synthesis Reference

MSDSNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Channel inactivation is regulated by intracellular calcium levels.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
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